2,484 research outputs found

    Six months functional response to early psychosis intervention program best predicts outcome after three years.

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    Not all patients respond well to early interventions for their psychosis. The present study's goal was to evaluate whether patients' responses in the first six months of treatment in a specialised three-year programme could predict final outcomes. 206 early psychosis patients were assessed at baseline, using a large set of sociodemographic and clinical variables, and then monitored for 36 months. Among those variables, changes in their Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scores during the first six months were used to predict outcomes after three years. Changes in GAF scores during the first six months were the only variables that predicted every symptom of functional outcome. GAF scores were also always the first or second most important predictor for every outcome. This finding held for both high- and low-functioning patients at baseline. Predicting poor long-term outcomes after only six months should help clinicians to improve treatments

    Estimation of left ventricular volume from apical orthogonal 2-D echocardiograma

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    In 42 consecutive patients undergoing biplane left ventricular cine-angiography, left ventricular volumes were first determined ultrasonically using a phased array transducer. To this end, two orthogonal apical long axis views were recorded one illustrating all four chambers, the other being the ‘RA O equivalent' view. Left ventricular volumes wer estimated by applying the area-length method to both two-dimensional echocardiograms and cine-angiograms, consistently including in the former the left ventricular outflow tract of the ‘RAO equivalent' view. The echocardiographic approach employed was shown to yield good predictions of the angiographic results. For the end-diastolic volume the correlation is characterized by r=0.98 and SEE 21 ml or 9.7% of the angiographic mean and for the end-systolic volume by r=0.97 and SEE 17 ml or 18.1% of the mean. The correlation for the ejection fraction showed an r value of 0.87 and a SEE of 5.4%. Equally good correlations were obtained in the subgroup with wall motion disorders for which the r values of the end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were both 0.98 and that of the ejection fraction was 0.8

    A comparison between single gate and multigate ultrasonic Doppler measurements for the assessment of the velocity pattern in the human ascending aorta

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    The velocity pattern in the ascending aorta of 15 healthy adults was measured quasisimultaneously from the Doppler-shifts produced in 16 gates distributed equally within the cross-section along a narrow ultrasound beam which centrally traversed the vessel upstream of the brachiocephalic trunk. A comparison between the time integrals of the velocities in gates 9 (centre line), 4 and 13 (off centre) and the time integral of the weighted mean of the velocities of all gates correlated with r=0.90, SEE=1.05 (gate 9), r=0.90, SEE 0.88 (gate 4) and r=0.92, SEE 0.94 (gate 13). A better correlation (r=0.96, SEE=0.60) was found between the linear mean of all gates and the weighted mean. These results show that Doppler measurements in single small gates are not appropriate to determine the average cross-sectional blood flow velocity in healthy adult

    Clam fisheries of Vembanad Lake, Kerala with observations on the socio economic conditions of the clam fisheries

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    Vembanad Lake is the main estuary system which harbours rich resources of clams along the south west coast of India. Villorita cyprinoides) is the main resource followed by Meretrix cata, Paphia malabarica and Suneta scripta.Annualy about 31650 tonnes of clams are harvested and out of which 31430 tonnes is contributed by the black clam

    Individual variation in age‐dependent reproduction: Fast explorers live fast but senesce young?

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    Adaptive integration of life history and behaviour is expected to result in variation in the pace‐of‐life. Previous work focused on whether ‘risky’ phenotypes live fast but die young, but reported conflicting support. We posit that individuals exhibiting risky phenotypes may alternatively invest heavily in early‐life reproduction but consequently suffer greater reproductive senescence. We used a 7‐year longitudinal dataset with >1,200 breeding records of >800 female great tits assayed annually for exploratory behaviour to test whether within‐individual age dependency of reproduction varied with exploratory behaviour. We controlled for biasing effects of selective (dis)appearance and within‐individual behavioural plasticity. Slower and faster explorers produced moderate‐sized clutches when young; faster explorers subsequently showed an increase in clutch size that diminished with age (with moderate support for declines when old), whereas slower explorers produced moderate‐sized clutches throughout their lives. There was some evidence that the same pattern characterized annual fledgling success, if so, unpredictable environmental effects diluted personality‐related differences in this downstream reproductive trait. Support for age‐related selective appearance was apparent, but only when failing to appreciate within‐individual plasticity in reproduction and behaviour. Our study identifies within‐individual age‐dependent reproduction, and reproductive senescence, as key components of life‐history strategies that vary between individuals differing in risky behaviour. Future research should thus incorporate age‐dependent reproduction in pace‐of‐life studies

    Bivalve resources of the Chettuva estuary, Kerala

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    Clams form a major exploited resource of Chettuva estuary. A rapid survey was carried out to assess the bivalve resource and potential stock. The estuary harbors an estimated standing stock of 378 t of bivalves; Meretrix casta is the dominant species (340 t) followed by Villorita cyprinoides (33.6 t). Aspects of conservation and management of bivalve fishery are detailed. The prospects for enhancing bivalve production from the estuary through relaying/ semi culture of clams and promoting mussel farming in the lower reaches of the estuary are discussed

    Clinical use of fungal PCR from deep tissue samples in the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases : a retrospective observational study

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    Objectives: To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. Methods: We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. Results: There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Conclusions: Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. M. Ala-Houhala, Clin Microbiol Infect 2018;24:301 (C) 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe
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