29,963 research outputs found

    Minimally Allowed Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Rates From Approximate Flavor Symmetries

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    Neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ0ν\beta\beta0\nu) is among the only realistic probes of Majorana neutrinos. In the standard scenario, dominated by light neutrino exchange, the process amplitude is proportional to meem_{ee}, the eee-e element of the Majorana mass matrix. Naively, current data allows for vanishing meem_{ee}, but this should be protected by an appropriate flavor symmetry. All such symmetries lead to mass matrices inconsistent with oscillation phenomenology. I perform a spurion analysis to break all possible Abelian symmetries that guarantee vanishing ββ0ν\beta\beta0\nu rates and search for minimally allowed values. I survey 230 broken structures to yield meem_{ee} values and current phenomenological constraints under a variety of scenarios. This analysis also extracts predictions for both neutrino oscillation parameters and kinematic quantities. Assuming reasonable tuning levels, I find that mee>4×106m_{ee}>4\times 10^{-6} eV at 99% confidence. Bounds below this value might indicate the Dirac neutrino nature or the existence of new light (eV-MeV scale) degrees of freedom that can potentially be probed elsewhere.Comment: 19 Pages, 4 .eps Figures, 3 Table

    SPECIES I: Spectroscopic Parameters and atmosphEric ChemIstriEs of Stars

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    The detection and subsequent characterisation of exoplanets are intimately linked to the characteristics of their host star. Therefore, it is necessary to study the star in detail in order to understand the formation history and characteristics of their companion(s). Our aims were to develop a community tool that allows the automated calculation of stellar parameters for a large number of stars, using high resolution echelle spectra and minimal photometric magnitudes, and introduce the first results in this work. We measured the equivalent widths of several iron lines and used them to solve the radiative transfer equation assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium to obtain the atmospheric parameters (TeffT_{\text{eff}}, [Fe/H], logg and ξt\xi_t). We used these values to derive the abundance of 11 chemical elements in the stellar photosphere (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn). Rotation and macroturbulent velocity were obtained using temperature calibrators and synthetic line profiles to match the observed spectra of five absorption lines. Finally, by interpolating in a grid of MIST isochrones, we derived the mass, radius and age using a Bayesian approach. SPECIES obtains bulk parameters that are in good agreement with measured values from different existing catalogues, including when different methods are used to derive them. We find excellent agreement with previous works that used similar methodologies. We find discrepancies in the chemical abundances for some elements with respect to other works, which could be produced by differences in TeffT_{\text{eff}}, or in the line list or the atomic line data used to derive them. We also obtained analytic relations to describe the correlations between different parameters, and we implemented new methods to better handle these correlations, which provides a better description of the uncertainties associated with the measurements.Comment: 28 pages, 26 figures, resubmitted to A&

    Dendritic cells activated with products released by schistosome larvae drive Th2-type immune responses, which can be inhibited by manipulation of CD40 costimulation

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    The early immune events in response to infective larvae of the parasitic helminth Schistosoma mansoni are poorly understood, but here for the first time we report on the potential of products released by schistosome larvae (material released in the first 3 It after transformation [0-3hRP]) to stimulate the maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and alter their T-cell-polarizing function. This was performed in comparison with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan A, which classically activate DC to prime for Th1- and Th2-type responses, respectively. In our study, immature bone marrow-derived DC stimulated in vitro with 0-3hRP exhibited up-regulated expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, and CD86 and increased production of interleukin 12p40 (IL-12p40) and IL-6, albeit at lower levels than in response to LPS or zymosan A. Using an in vitro ovalbumin peptide-restricted priming assay, DC matured with 0-3hRP exhibited a potent capacity to drive Th2 polarization of CD4(+) cells from DO11.10 transgenic mice. This was characterized by increased IL-4 production (but not gamma interferon) of a magnitude similar to that primed by DC matured with zymosan A. Inoculation of DO11.10 mice with 0-3hRP-activated DC pulsed with ovalbumin peptide also led to the development of a Th2-type polarized response in the skin-draining lymph nodes and spleen. However, ligation of CD40 on DC by anti-CD40 antibody treatment reversed the ability of 0-3hRP-activated DC to prime for Th2-type responses and instead caused the induction of a more Th1-type response

    Aspects of Nucleon Chiral Perturbation Theory

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    I review recent progress made in the calculation of nucleon properties in the framework of heavy baryon CHPT. Topics include: Compton scattering, πN\pi N scattering, the anatomy of a low-energy constant and the induced pseudoscalar form factor.Comment: plain TeX (macro included), 12pp, lecture delivered at the workshop on "Chiral Dynamics: Theory and Experiments", MIT, July 25-29, 199

    Shocks in supersonic sand

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    We measure time-averaged velocity, density, and temperature fields for steady granular flow past a wedge and calculate a speed of granular pressure disturbances (sound speed) equal to 10% of the flow speed. The flow is supersonic, forming shocks nearly identical to those in a supersonic gas. Molecular dynamics simulations of Newton's laws and Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation yield fields in quantitative agreement with experiment. A numerical solution of Navier-Stokes-like equations agrees with a molecular dynamics simulation for experimental conditions excluding wall friction.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

    Effective field theory and the quark model

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    We analyze the connections between the quark model (QM) and the description of hadrons in the low-momentum limit of heavy-baryon effective field theory in QCD. By using a three-flavor-index representation for the effective baryon fields, we show that the ``nonrelativistic'' constituent QM for baryon masses and moments is completely equivalent through O(m_s) to a parametrization of the relativistic field theory in a general spin--flavor basis. The flavor and spin variables can be identified with those of effective valence quarks. Conversely, the spin-flavor description clarifies the structure and dynamical interpretation of the chiral expansion in effective field theory, and provides a direct connection between the field theory and the semirelativistic models for hadrons used in successful dynamical calculations. This allows dynamical information to be incorporated directly into the chiral expansion. We find, for example, that the striking success of the additive QM for baryon magnetic moments is a consequence of the relative smallness of the non-additive spin-dependent corrections.Comment: 25 pages, revtex, no figure

    Sand as Maxwell's demon

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    We consider a dilute gas of granular material inside a box, kept in a stationary state by shaking. A wall separates the box into two identical compartments, save for a small hole at some finite height hh. As the gas is cooled, a second order phase transition occurs, in which the particles preferentially occupy one side of the box. We develop a quantitative theory of this clustering phenomenon and find good agreement with numerical simulations

    Enskog Theory for Polydisperse Granular Mixtures II. Sonine Polynomial Approximation

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    The linear integral equations defining the Navier-Stokes (NS) transport coefficients for polydisperse granular mixtures of smooth inelastic hard disks or spheres are solved by using the leading terms in a Sonine polynomial expansion. Explicit expressions for all the NS transport coefficients are given in terms of the sizes, masses, compositions, density and restitution coefficients. In addition, the cooling rate is also evaluated to first order in the gradients. The results hold for arbitrary degree of inelasticity and are not limited to specific values of the parameters of the mixture. Finally, a detailed comparison between the derivation of the current theory and previous theories for mixtures is made, with attention paid to the implication of the various treatments employed to date.Comment: 26 pages, to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Addressing Ethical Issues in Studying Men’s Traumatic Stress

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    Like many human experiences, traumatic stress is highly gendered. Over the past several decades, a sub-stantial number of empirical studies have explored ethical issues in traumatic stress research. However, these studies have typically reported female samples or failed to account for the influence of gender in their analyses of mixed-sex samples. By extension, ethical issues that are relevant to male participants in traumatic stress research are poorly understood. After briefly exploring why the vulnerabilities of male participants are under-explored in traumatic stress research, this article highlights many ethical issues that are important to address when men participate in traumatic stress research, concluding with some sugges-tions for how these might be taken up to advance the field
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