1,802 research outputs found

    CP violation in K decays: Experimental aspects

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    CP violation was originally discovered in neutral K mesons. Over the last few years, it has also been seen in B mesons, and most of the research in the eld is currently concentrating on the B system. However, there are some parameters which could be best measured in kaons. In order to see to which extent our present understanding of CP violation within the framework of the CKM matrix is correct, one has to check for possible differences between the K system and the B system. After an historical overview, I discuss a few of the most important recent results, and give an outlook on experiments that are being prepared

    Ayurvedic vs. Conventional Nutritional Therapy Including Low-FODMAP Diet for Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome — A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Aims: To compare the effects of Ayurvedic and conventional nutritional therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods: Sixty-nine patients with IBS were randomized to Ayurvedic (n = 35) or conventional nutritional therapy according to the recommendations of the German Nutrition Society including the low-FODMAP diet (n = 34). Study visits took place at baseline and after 1, 3, and 6 months. The primary outcome was IBS symptom severity (IBS-SSS) after 3 months; secondary outcomes included stress (CPSS), anxiety and depression (HADS), well-being (WHO-5) and IBS-specific quality of life (IBS-QOL). A repeated measures general linear model (GLM) for intent-to-treat-analyses was applied in this explorative study. Results: After 3 months, estimated marginal means for IBS-SSS reductions were 123.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 92.8-154.9; p < 0.001] in the Ayurvedic and 72.7 (95% CI = 38.8-106.7; p < 0.001) in the conventional group. The IBS-SSS reduction was significantly higher in the Ayurveda group compared to the conventional therapy group (estimated marginal mean = 51.1; 95% CI = 3.8-98.5; p = 0.035) and clinically meaningful. Sixty-eight percentage of the variance in IBS-SSS reduction after 3 months can be explained by treatment, 6.5% by patients' expectations for their therapies and 23.4% by IBS-SSS at pre-intervention. Both therapies are equivalent in their contribution to the outcome variance. The higher the IBS-SSS score at pre-intervention and the larger the patients' expectations, the greater the IBS-SSS reduction. There were no significant group differences in any secondary outcome measures. No serious adverse events occurred in either group. Conclusion: Patients with IBS seem to benefit significantly from Ayurvedic or conventional nutritional therapy. The results warrant further studies with longer-term follow-ups and larger sample sizes

    Ayurveda in Knee Osteoarthritis—Secondary Analyses of a Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Background: Ayurveda is widely practiced in South Asia in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of these secondary data analyses were to identify the most relevant variables for treatment response and group differences between Ayurvedic therapy compared to conventional therapy in knee OA patients. Methods: A total of 151 patients (Ayurveda n = 77, conventional care n = 74) were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle in a randomized controlled trial. Different statistical approaches including generalized linear models, a radial basis function (RBF) network, exhausted CHAID, classification and regression trees (CART), and C5.0 with adaptive boosting were applied. Results: The RBF network implicated that the therapy arm and the baseline values of the WOMAC Index subscales might be the most important variables for the significant between-group differences of the WOMAC Index from baseline to 12 weeks in favor of Ayurveda. The intake of nutritional supplements in the Ayurveda group did not seem to be a significant factor in changes in the WOMAC Index. Ayurveda patients with functional limitations > 60 points and pain > 25 points at baseline showed the greatest improvements in the WOMAC Index from baseline to 12 weeks (mean value 107.8 +/- 27.4). A C5.0 model with nine predictors had a predictive accuracy of 89.4% for a change in the WOMAC Index after 12 weeks > 10. With adaptive boosting, the accuracy rose to 98%. Conclusions: These secondary analyses suggested that therapeutic effects cannot be explained by the therapies themselves alone, although they were the most important factors in the applied models

    The CMS Drift Tube Trigger Track Finder

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    Muons are among the decay products of many new particles that may be discovered at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. At the first trigger level the identification of muons and the determination of their transverse momenta and location is performed by the Drift Tube Trigger Track Finder in the central region of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment, using track segments detected in the Drift Tube muon chambers. Track finding is performed both in pseudorapidity and azimuth. Track candidates are ranked and sorted, and the best four are delivered to the subsequent high level trigger stage. The concept, design, control and simulation software as well as the expected performance of the system are described. Prototyping, production and tests are also summarized

    Direct search for light gluinos

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    We present the results for a direct search for light gluinos through the appearance of η3π0\eta\rightarrow 3\pi^{0} with high transverse momentum in the vacuum tank of the NA48 experiment at CERN. We find one event within a lifetime range of 10910310^{-9}-10^{-3}s and another one between 101010910^{-10}-10^{-9}s. Both events are consistent with the expected background from neutrons in the beam, produced by 450 GeV protons impinging on the Be targets, which interact with the residual air in the tank. From these data we give limits on the production of the hypothetical gg~g\widetilde{g} bound state, the R0R^0 hadron, and its R0ηγ~R^0\rightarrow\eta\widetilde{\gamma} decay in the R0R^0 mass range between 1 and 5~GeV

    Addendum 2 to P253: a high sensitivity investigation of KsK_{s} and neutral hyperon decays using a modified KsK_{s} beam

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    New high statistics measurement of Ke4K_{e4} decay form factors and ππ\pi\pi scattering phase shifts

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    We report results from a new measurement of the Ke4K_{e4} decay K±π+πe±νK^{\pm} \rightarrow \pi^{+}\pi^{-}e^{\pm}\nu by the NA48/2 collaboration at the CERN SPS, based on a partial sample of more than 670000 Ke4K_{e4} decays in both charged modes collected in 2003. The form factors of the hadronic current (F, G, H) and ππ\pi\pi phase difference (δ=δsδp\delta=\delta_{s}-\delta_{p}) have been measured in ten independent bins of the ππ\pi\pi mass spectrum to investigate the variation. A sizeable acceptance at large ππ\pi\pi mass, a low background and a very good resolution contribute to an improved experimental accuracy, a factor two better than in the previous measurement, when extracting the ππ\pi\pi scattering lengths a00a^{0}_{0} and a02a^{2}_{0}. Under the assumption of isospin symmetry and using numerical solutions of the Roy equations, the following values are obtained in the plane (a00,a02):a00=0.233±0.016stat±0.007syst,a02=0.0471±0.011stat±0.004systa^{0}_{0}, a^{2}_{0}): a^{0}_{0}=0.233 \pm 0.016_{stat} \pm 0.007_{syst}, a^{2}_{0}=-0.0471 \pm 0.011_{stat} \pm 0.004_{syst}. The presence of potentially large isospin effects is also considered and will allow comparison with precise predictions from Chiral Perturbation Theory

    Search for direct CP violating charge asymmetries in K±π±π+πK^\pm\to\pi^\pm\pi^+\pi^- and K±π±π0π0K^\pm\to\pi^\pm\pi^0\pi^0 decays

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    A measurement of the direct CP violating charge asymmetries of the Dalitz plot linear slopes Ag=(g+g)/(g++g)A_g=(g^+-g^-)/(g^++g^-) in K±π±π+πK^\pm\to\pi^\pm\pi^+\pi^- and K±π±π0π0K^\pm\to\pi^\pm\pi^0\pi^0 decays by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS is presented. A new technique of asymmetry measurement involving simultaneous K+K^+ and KK^- beams and a large data sample collected allowed a result of an unprecedented precision. The charge asymmetries were measured to be Agc=(1.5±2.2)×104A^c_g=(-1.5\pm2.2)\times10^{-4} with 3.11×1093.11\times 10^9 K±π±π+πK^{\pm}\to\pi^\pm\pi^+\pi^- decays, and Agn=(1.8±1.8)×104A^n_g=(1.8\pm1.8)\times10^{-4} with 9.13×1079.13\times 10^7 K±π±π0π0K^{\pm}\to\pi^\pm\pi^0\pi^0 decays. The precision of the results is limited mainly by the size of the data sample.Comment: 29 pages, 9 figures. An updated version accepted by the EPJ

    Neutrino Physics with JUNO

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    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purposeunderground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determinationof the neutrino mass hierarchy as a primary physics goal. It is also capable ofobserving neutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, includingsupernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos,atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, as well as exotic searches such asnucleon decays, dark matter, sterile neutrinos, etc. We present the physicsmotivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for variousproposed measurements. By detecting reactor antineutrinos from two power plantsat 53-km distance, JUNO will determine the neutrino mass hierarchy at a 3-4sigma significance with six years of running. The measurement of antineutrinospectrum will also lead to the precise determination of three out of the sixoscillation parameters to an accuracy of better than 1\%. Neutrino burst from atypical core-collapse supernova at 10 kpc would lead to ~5000inverse-beta-decay events and ~2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton elasticscattering events in JUNO. Detection of DSNB would provide valuable informationon the cosmic star-formation rate and the average core-collapsed neutrinoenergy spectrum. Geo-neutrinos can be detected in JUNO with a rate of ~400events per year, significantly improving the statistics of existing geoneutrinosamples. The JUNO detector is sensitive to several exotic searches, e.g. protondecay via the pK++νˉp\to K^++\bar\nu decay channel. The JUNO detector will providea unique facility to address many outstanding crucial questions in particle andastrophysics. It holds the great potential for further advancing our quest tounderstanding the fundamental properties of neutrinos, one of the buildingblocks of our Universe

    Measurement of differential cross sections for top quark pair production using the lepton plus jets final state in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV

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    National Science Foundation (U.S.