675 research outputs found

    EAST: Energy Efficient Adaptive Scheme for Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks

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    In this paper, we propose Energy-efficient Adaptive Scheme for Transmission (EAST) in WSNs. EAST is IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliant. In this approach, open-loop is used for temperature-aware link quality estimation and compensation. Whereas, closed-loop feedback helps to divide network into three logical regions to minimize overhead of control packets on basis of Threshold transmitter power loss (RSSIloss) for each region and current number of neighbor nodes that help to adapt transmit power according to link quality changes due to temperature variation. Simulation results show that propose scheme; EAST effectively adapts transmission power to changing link quality with less control packets overhead and energy consumption compared to classical approach with single region in which maximum transmitter power assigned to compensate temperature variation

    Testing of Android testing tools: development of a benchmark for the evaluation

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    With the ever growing trend of smart phones and tablets, Android is becoming more and more popular everyday. With more than one billion active users i to date, Android is the leading technology in smart phone arena. In addition to that, Android also runs on Android TV, Android smart watches and cars. Therefore, in recent years, Android applications have become one of the major development sectors in software industry. As of mid 2013, the number of published applications on Google Play had exceeded one million and the cumulative number of downloads was more than 50 billionii. A 2013 survey also revealed that 71% of the mobile application developers work on developing Android applicationsiii. Considering this size of Android applications, it is quite evident that people rely on these applications on a daily basis for the completion of simple tasks like keeping track of weather to rather complex tasks like managing one‚Äôs bank accounts. Hence, like every other kind of code, Android code also needs to be verified in order to work properly and achieve a certain confidence level. Because of the gigantic size of the number of applications, it becomes really hard to manually test Android applications specially when it has to be verified for various versions of the OS and also, various device configurations such as different screen sizes and different hardware availability. Hence, recently there has been a lot of work on developing different testing methods for Android applications in Computer Science fraternity. The model of Android attracts researchers because of its open source nature. It makes the whole research model more streamlined when the code for both, application and the platform are readily available to analyze. And hence, there has been a great deal of research in testing and static analysis of Android applications. A great deal of this research has been focused on the input test generation for Android applications. Hence, there are a several testing tools available now, which focus on automatic generation of test cases for Android applications. These tools differ with one another on the basis of their strategies and heuristics used for this generation of test cases. But there is still very little work done on the comparison of these testing tools and the strategies they use. Recently, some research work has been carried outiv in this regard that compared the performance of various available tools with respect to their respective code coverage, fault detection, ability to work on multiple platforms and their ease of use. It was done, by running these tools on a total of 60 real world Android applications. The results of this research showed that although effective, these strategies being used by the tools, also face limitations and hence, have room for improvement. The purpose of this thesis is to extend this research into a more specific and attribute-¬≠‚Äź oriented way. Attributes refer to the tasks that can be completed using the Android platform. It can be anything ranging from a basic system call for receiving an SMS to more complex tasks like sending the user to another application from the current one. The idea is to develop a benchmark for Android testing tools, which is based on the performance related to these attributes. This will allow the comparison of these tools with respect to these attributes. For example, if there is an application that plays some audio file, will the testing tool be able to generate a test input that will warrant the execution of this audio file? Using multiple applications using different attributes, it can be visualized that which testing tool is more useful for which kinds of attributes. In this thesis, it was decided that 9 attributes covering the basic nature of tasks, will be targeted for the assessment of three testing tools. Later this can be done for much more attributes to compare even more testing tools. The aim of this work is to show that this approach is effective and can be used on a much larger scale. One of the flagship features of this work, which also differentiates it with the previous work, is that the applications used, are all specially made for this research. The reason for doing that is to analyze just that specific attribute in isolation, which the application is focused on, and not allow the tool to get bottlenecked by something trivial, which is not the main attribute under testing. This means 9 applications, each focused on one specific attribute. The main contributions of this thesis are: A summary of the three existing testing tools and their respective techniques for automatic test input generation of Android Applications. ‚ÄĘ A detailed study of the usage of these testing tools using the 9 applications specially designed and developed for this study. ‚ÄĘ The analysis of the obtained results of the study carried out. And a comparison of the performance of the selected tools

    Objectives of Governance: A Comparison of Islamic and Western Traditions in the Context of Pakistan

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    An Islamic state led by a Caliph works to achieve objectives of Islamic governance. The objectives of governance between Western (secular democratic system) and Islamic traditions have close proximity, at least in words. These objectives include collective action (ijtimaiyat) and social justice (Aadalah). Collective action is used to provide basic human rights, while the comparable Islamic term ijtimaiya is aimed at providing basic protections. A Western nation state is defined by having legitimacy to tax and maintain an army for defence, while in Islam, comparable terms, though having difference, are Zakat and Jihad. It is required that an Islamic state should achieve effective internal governance by developing legal instruments for achieving the objectives, even if it works under Khilafah, or democracy

    Correlation of Red Cell Distribution Width with Severity of Cardiovascular Diseases

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    Objectives: To determine the correlation of red cell distribution width (RDW) with severity of cardiovascular diseases. Methodology: This study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Aziz Fatima Medical and Dental College, Faisalabad, over a period of one year from October 2019 to September 2020. A total of 150 participants were included in the study consisting of 75 patients of cardiovascular disease in case group and 75 participants without any cardiovascular disease in control group. All patients in the study underwent trans radial or transfemoral rout coronary angiography using 5F optitorque catheter for trans radial rout or 6F Judkins catheters for transfemoral rout. All the patient had angiography within 24 hours of admission in the hospital. Results: The patients who were diagnosed with Coronary artery Disease (CAD) had significantly higher mean age (51.45 ¬Ī 11.29 years) as compared (44.56 ¬Ī 9.45 years) to group B without out CAD. There were 53 (70.67%) males in group A, and 42 (56%) males in group B. The rate of hypertension (61.33%) was significantly higher among patient who diagnosed with CAD. The mean value of RDW CV was found significantly (p-value < 0.05) raised among patients of CAD (14.36 ¬Ī 1.02vs. 13.52 ¬Ī 0.89). The RDW SD was also significantly higher in group A (43.67 ¬Ī 4.39 vs. 41.65 ¬Ī 3.46, p-value = 0.002) in comparison to group B. Age and male gender were found to be a significant (p-value < 0.05) contributor for CVD with an odds ratio of 1.18 and 3 respectively. Conclusion: RDW is an effective easily available marker for the assessment of severity of coronary artery disease and helps in risk stratification of CAD patients for further events

    Knowledge about asthma: A cross-sectional survey in 4 major hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan

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    Objective: To determine knowledge and misconceptions about asthma among the local population..Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at four tertiary care hospitals; Aga Khan University Hospital, Civil Hospital Karachi, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre and Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases, Karachi, from October to November 2016, and comprised hospital attendants. The questionnaire used in the study comprised 26 questions answered with a true, false or not sure answer.SPSS 20 was used for data analysis.Results: There were 400 participants. The overall mean age was 41.2¬Ī14.2 years, and 214(53.5%) of the participants were males. Moreover, 75(19%) participants thought that asthma was a psychological disorder while 181(45%) considered it an infectious disease. Nearly 174(43.5%) believed that inhaled medications had significant side effects. Besides, 264(66%) participants considered steam inhalation to be an effective treatment for asthma, 269(67%) thought that patients with asthma should avoid rice in their diet and 167(42%) considered milk as a common trigger.CONCLUSIONS: Participants\u27 knowledge about asthma was poor and misconceptions were common about the condition

    Response Surface Methodology for the production of endopolygalacturonase by a novel Bacillus licheniformis

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    Background:¬†Polygalacturonase is one of the most important commercial pectinase. The production cost and the mesophilic nature of the present polygalacturonase is a big problem in its application in the juice industry. A lot of work is going on for the isolation of thermophilic bacterial strains which can utilize pectin as the only carbon source.Methods:¬†Bacterial strains were isolated from rotten fruits and vegetables and cultured at 50 ‚Äď 70oC. The strains were than screened for endopolygalacturonase activity and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence. Different growth parameters for the production of endopolygalacturonase by¬†Bacillus licheniformis¬†IEB-8 were optimized using Response Surface Methodology under Center Composite Design using JMP-12 software. Endopolygalacturonase was purified in two steps; ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by size exclusion column chromatography.Results:¬†Only four strains, IEB-8, IEB-11, IEB-12 and IEB-13 showed growth above 60oC. Among these four, only IEB-8 was found to be endopolygalacturonase positive, which was identified as¬†Bacillus licheniformis¬†by 16S rRNA gene sequence.¬†Purification fold of 2.57 and 7.48 in the specific activity were achieved using ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography respectively. Molecular weight of the purified endopolygalacturonase was found to be 42 kDa. The purified endopolygalacturonase showed an optimum pH of 7 and optimum temperature of 55oC.Conclusion:¬†Bacillus licheniformis¬†IEB-8 is a novel bacteria which can efficiently be utilized in the industry for the production of endopolygalacturonase very cheaply. Furthermore, the high optimum working temperature of endopolygalacturonase, increases its significance for its industrial applications.Keywords:¬†Endopolygalacturonase;¬†Bacillus licheniformis;¬†Thermophilic; Response Surface Methodology; Ammonium sulfate precipitatio

    Determination of non-organ specific autoantibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis C and association with HLA DRőí1 (*04) allele

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    The regulation of immune mechanisms is controlled by major histocompatibility complex/human leukocyte antigen (MHC/HLA). Polymorphisms of the HLA region have an impact on susceptibility to complex infectious and autoimmune diseases. The present study was carried out to determine the frequencies of ASMA, AMA, ANA, dsDNA, and anti-LKM-1 auto-antibodies in hepatitis C patients and to determine their association with the HLA DRő≤1 (*04) locus. It was a cross-sectional, analytical study, and 86 patients with chronic HCV were recruited. The presence of auto-antibodies (ASMA, AMA, ANA, dsDNA, and anti-LKM-1) was determined by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA, while the HLA DRő≤1 (*04) allele was assessed by sequence-specific conventional PCR. ANA was detected in 41%, ASMA in 17.4%, AMA in 7%, LKM-1 in 5.8% dsDNA in 4.6% of CHC patients while HLA-DRő≤1 (*04) was present in 3.5% of patients, but this was not significantly associated with these auto-antibodies

    Effects of a high-dose 24-h infusion of tranexamic acid on death and thromboembolic events in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding (HALT-IT): an international randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background: Tranexamic acid reduces surgical bleeding and reduces death due to bleeding in patients with trauma. Meta-analyses of small trials show that tranexamic acid might decrease deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to assess the effects of tranexamic acid in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: We did an international, multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in 164 hospitals in 15 countries. Patients were enrolled if the responsible clinician was uncertain whether to use tranexamic acid, were aged above the minimum age considered an adult in their country (either aged 16 years and older or aged 18 years and older), and had significant (defined as at risk of bleeding to death) upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients were randomly assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients received either a loading dose of 1 g tranexamic acid, which was added to 100 mL infusion bag of 0¬∑9% sodium chloride and infused by slow intravenous injection over 10 min, followed by a maintenance dose of 3 g tranexamic acid added to 1 L of any isotonic intravenous solution and infused at 125 mg/h for 24 h, or placebo (sodium chloride 0¬∑9%). Patients, caregivers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. The primary outcome was death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation; analysis excluded patients who received neither dose of the allocated treatment and those for whom outcome data on death were unavailable. This trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN11225767, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01658124. Findings: Between July 4, 2013, and June 21, 2019, we randomly allocated 12 009 patients to receive tranexamic acid (5994, 49¬∑9%) or matching placebo (6015, 50¬∑1%), of whom 11 952 (99¬∑5%) received the first dose of the allocated treatment. Death due to bleeding within 5 days of randomisation occurred in 222 (4%) of 5956 patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 226 (4%) of 5981 patients in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 0¬∑99, 95% CI 0¬∑82‚Äď1¬∑18). Arterial thromboembolic events (myocardial infarction or stroke) were similar in the tranexamic acid group and placebo group (42 [0¬∑7%] of 5952 vs 46 [0¬∑8%] of 5977; 0¬∑92; 0¬∑60 to 1¬∑39). Venous thromboembolic events (deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism) were higher in tranexamic acid group than in the placebo group (48 [0¬∑8%] of 5952 vs 26 [0¬∑4%] of 5977; RR 1¬∑85; 95% CI 1¬∑15 to 2¬∑98). Interpretation: We found that tranexamic acid did not reduce death from gastrointestinal bleeding. On the basis of our results, tranexamic acid should not be used for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding outside the context of a randomised trial

    Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15‚Äą000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15‚Äą000 to 20‚Äą000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Findings Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20‚Äą060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10‚Äą051) or placebo (n=10‚Äą009), of whom 10‚Äą036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis. Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1¬∑5%] of 10‚Äą036 patients vs 191 [1¬∑9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0¬∑81, 95% CI 0¬∑65‚Äď1¬∑00; p=0¬∑045), especially in women given treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1¬∑2%] in the tranexamic acid group vs 127 [1¬∑7%] in the placebo group, RR 0¬∑69, 95% CI 0¬∑52‚Äď0¬∑91; p=0¬∑008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3¬∑6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group vs 351 [3¬∑5%] in the placebo group, RR 1¬∑02, 95% CI 0¬∑88‚Äď1¬∑07; p=0¬∑84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5¬∑3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group vs 546 [5¬∑5%] in the placebo group, RR 0¬∑97, 95% CI 0¬∑87-1¬∑09; p=0¬∑65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group. Interpretation Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as possible after bleeding onset. Funding London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV

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    A search is presented for new particles produced at the LHC in proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 101 fb(-1), collected in 2017-2018 with the CMS detector. Machine learning techniques are used to define separate categories for events with narrow jets from initial-state radiation and events with large-radius jets consistent with a hadronic decay of a W or Z boson. A statistical combination is made with an earlier search based on a data sample of 36 fb(-1), collected in 2016. No significant excess of events is observed with respect to the standard model background expectation determined from control samples in data. The results are interpreted in terms of limits on the branching fraction of an invisible decay of the Higgs boson, as well as constraints on simplified models of dark matter, on first-generation scalar leptoquarks decaying to quarks and neutrinos, and on models with large extra dimensions. Several of the new limits, specifically for spin-1 dark matter mediators, pseudoscalar mediators, colored mediators, and leptoquarks, are the most restrictive to date.Peer reviewe
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