1,583 research outputs found

    A meta-analytic review of stand-alone interventions to improve body image

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    Objective Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. Methods The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. Results The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. Conclusions The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions

    Laser monitoring system for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter

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    We report on the multiple wavelength laser monitoring system designed for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter read-out with avalanche photodiodes (Barrel calorimeters) and vacuum phototriodes (End Cap calorimeters). Results are presented for the test beam performance of the system designed to achieve 0.5% relative inter-calibration of the optical transmittance for lead tungstate scintillation emission over nearly 80 000 channels. The system operates in continuous measurement cycles to follow each crystal?s evolution under irradiation and recovery periods foreseen during operation at the LHC

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson at LEP

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    A role for CD47 in the development of experimental colitis mediated by SIRPα+CD103− dendritic cells

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    Mesenteric lymph node (mLN) CD103 (αE integrin)+ dendritic cells (DCs) induce regulatory T cells and gut tolerance. However, the function of intestinal CD103− DCs remains to be clarified. CD47 is the ligand of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) and promotes SIRPα+ myeloid cell migration. We first show that mucosal CD103− DCs selectively express SIRPα and that their frequency was augmented in the lamina propria and mLNs of mice that developed Th17-biased colitis in response to trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. In contrast, the percentage of SIRPα+CD103− DCs and Th17 responses were decreased in CD47-deficient (CD47 knockout [KO]) mice, which remained protected from colitis. We next demonstrate that transferring wild-type (WT), but not CD47 KO, SIRPα+CD103− DCs in CD47 KO mice elicited severe Th17-associated wasting disease. CD47 expression was required on the SIRPα+CD103− DCs for efficient trafficking to mLNs in vivo, whereas it was dispensable on both DCs and T cells for Th17 polarization in vitro. Finally, administration of a CD47-Fc molecule resulted in reduced SIRPα+CD103− DC–mediated Th17 responses and the protection of WT mice from colitis. We thus propose SIRPα+CD103− DCs as a pathogenic DC subset that drives Th17-biased responses and colitis, and the CD47–SIRPα axis as a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease

    Tumor surveillance by circulating microRNAs: a hypothesis

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    A growing body of experimental evidence supports the diagnostic relevance of circulating microRNAs in various diseases including cancer. The biological relevance of circulating microRNAs is, however, largely unknown, particularly in healthy individuals. Here, we propose a hypothesis based on the relative abundance of microRNAs with predominant tumor suppressor activity in the blood of healthy individuals. According to our hypothesis, certain sets of circulating microRNAs might function as a tumor surveillance mechanism exerting continuous inhibition on tumor formation. The microRNA-mediated tumor surveillance might complement cancer immune surveillance

    Energy Resolution Performance of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

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    The energy resolution performance of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter is presented. Measurements were made with an electron beam using a fully equipped supermodule of the calorimeter barrel. Results are given both for electrons incident on the centre of crystals and for electrons distributed uniformly over the calorimeter surface. The electron energy is reconstructed in matrices of 3 times 3 or 5 times 5 crystals centred on the crystal containing the maximum energy. Corrections for variations in the shower containment are applied in the case of uniform incidence. The resolution measured is consistent with the design goals

    Measurements of the leptonic branching fractions of the τ\tau

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    Data collected with the DELPHI detector from 1993 to 1995 combined with previous DELPHI results for data from 1991 and 1992 yield the branching fractions B({\tau \rightarrow \mbox{\rm e} \nu \bar{\nu}}) = (17.877 \pm 0.109_{stat} \pm 0.110_{sys} )\% and B(τμννˉ)=(17.325±0.095stat±0.077sys)%B({\tau \rightarrow \mu \nu \bar{\nu}}) = (17.325 \pm 0.095_{stat} \pm 0.077_{sys} )\%

    Measurement of inclusive π0\pi^{0} production in hadronic Z0Z^{0} decays

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    An analysis is presented of inclusive \pi^0 production in Z^0 decays measured with the DELPHI detector. At low energies, \pi^0 decays are reconstructed by \linebreak using pairs of converted photons and combinations of converted photons and photons reconstructed in the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (HPC). At high energies (up to x_p = 2 \cdot p_{\pi}/\sqrt{s} = 0.75) the excellent granularity of the HPC is exploited to search for two-photon substructures in single showers. The inclusive differential cross section is measured as a function of energy for {q\overline q} and {b \bar b} events. The number of \pi^0's per hadronic Z^0 event is N(\pi^0)/ Z_{had}^0 = 9.2 \pm 0.2 \mbox{(stat)} \pm 1.0 \mbox{(syst)} and for {b \bar b}~events the number of \pi^0's is {\mathrm N(\pi^0)/ b \overline b} = 10.1 \pm 0.4 \mbox{(stat)} \pm 1.1 \mbox{(syst)} . The ratio of the number of \pi^0's in b \overline b events to hadronic Z^0 events is less affected by the systematic errors and is found to be 1.09 \pm 0.05 \pm 0.01. The measured \pi^0 cross sections are compared with the predictions of different parton shower models. For hadronic events, the peak position in the \mathrm \xi_p = \ln(1/x_p) distribution is \xi_p^{\star} = 3.90^{+0.24}_{-0.14}. The average number of \pi^0's from the decay of primary \mathrm B hadrons is found to be {\mathrm N} (B \rightarrow \pi^0 \, X)/\mbox{B hadron} = 2.78 \pm 0.15 \mbox{(stat)} \pm 0.60 \mbox{(syst)}
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