34 research outputs found

    Efficacy of Humanized Carbapenem and Ceftazidime Regimens against Enterobacteriaceae Producing OXA-48 Carbapenemase in a Murine Infection Model

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    Enterobacteriaceae producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase are emerging worldwide, leaving few treatment options. Efficacy has been demonstrated in vivo with ceftazidime against a ceftazidime-susceptible OXA-48 isolate but not with imipenem despite maintaining susceptibility. The relationship between phenotype and in vivo efficacy was assessed for OXA-48 producers using humanized regimens of 2 g doripenem every 8 h (q8h; 4 h infusion), 1 g ertapenem q24h, 2 g ceftazidime q8h (2 h inf), and 500 mg levofloxacin q24h. Each regimen was evaluated over 24 h against an isogenic pair (wild-type and OXA-48 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains) and six clinical OXA-48 isolates with and without other extended-spectrum β-lactamases in immunocompetent and neutropenic murine thigh infection models. Efficacy was determined using the change in bacterial density versus 24-h growth controls in immunocompetent studies and 0-h controls in neutropenic studies. Bacterial reductions of ≥1 log CFU were observed with all agents for the wild-type strain. Consistent with low MICs, ceftazidime and levofloxacin exhibited efficacy against the isogenic OXA-48 strain, whereas doripenem did not, despite having a susceptible MIC; no activity was observed with ertapenem, consistent with a resistant MIC. Similar trends were observed for the clinical isolates evaluated. Ceftazidime, levofloxacin, and ertapenem efficacy against isogenic and clinical OXA-48-producing strains correlated well with phenotypic profiles and pharmacodynamic targets, whereas efficacy with doripenem was variable over the MIC range studied. These data suggest that carbapenems may not be a reliable treatment for treating OXA-48 producers and add to previous observations with KPC and NDM-1 suggesting that genotype may better predict activity of the carbapenems than the phenotypic profile

    <i>In Vivo</i> Efficacy of Human Simulated Regimens of Carbapenems and Comparator Agents against NDM-1-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

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    Doripenem and ertapenem have demonstrated efficacy against several NDM-1- producing isolates in vivo, despite having high MICs. In this study, we sought to further characterize the efficacy profiles of humanized regimens of standard (500 mg given every 8 h) and high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem (2 g given every 8 h, 4-h infusion) and 1 g of ertapenem given intravenously every 24 h and the comparator regimens of ceftazidime at 2 g given every 8 h (2-h infusion), levofloxacin at 500 mg every 24 h, and aztreonam at 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) against a wider range of isolates in a murine thigh infection model. An isogenic wild-type strain and NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and eight clinical NDM-1-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were tested in immunocompetent- and neutropenic-mouse models. The wild-type strain was susceptible to all of the agents, while the isogenic NDM-1-producing strain was resistant to ceftazidime, doripenem, and ertapenem. Clinical NDM-1-producing strains were resistant to nearly all five of the agents (two were susceptible to levofloxacin). In immunocompetent mice, all of the agents produced ≥1-log₁₀ CFU reductions of the isogenic wild-type and NDM-1- producing strains after 24 h. Minimal efficacy of ceftazidime, aztreonam, and levofloxacin against the clinical NDM-1-producing strains was observed. However, despite in vitro resistance, ≥1-log₁₀ CFU reductions of six of eight clinical strains were achieved with high-dose, prolonged infusion of doripenem and ertapenem. Slight enhancements of doripenem activity over the standard doses were obtained with high-dose, prolonged infusion for three of the four isolates tested. Similar efficacy observations were noted in neutropenic mice. These data suggest that carbapenems are a viable treatment option for infections caused by NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Comparative Efficacies of Human Simulated Exposures of Telavancin and Vancomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a Range of Vancomycin MICs in a Murine Pneumonia Model▿

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    Telavancin displays potent in vitro and in vivo activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. We compared the efficacies of telavancin and vancomycin against MRSA strains with vancomycin MICs of ≥1 μg/ml in a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Thirteen clinical MRSA isolates (7 vancomycin-susceptible, 2 vancomycin-heteroresistant [hVISA], and 4 vancomycin-intermediate [VISA] isolates) were tested after 24 h, and 7 isolates (1 hVISA and 4 VISA isolates) were tested after 48 h of exposure. Mice were administered subcutaneous doses of telavancin at 40 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h (q12h) or of vancomycin at 110 mg/kg q12h; doses were designed to simulate the area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of drug (fAUC) observed for humans given telavancin at 10 mg/kg q24h or vancomycin at 1 g q12h. Efficacy was expressed as the 24- or 48-h change in lung bacterial density from pretreatment counts. At dose initiation, the mean bacterial load was 6.16 ± 0.26 log10 CFU/ml, which increased by averages of 1.26 ± 0.55 and 1.74 ± 0.68 log in untreated mice after 24 and 48 h, respectively. At both time points, similar CFU reductions were noted for telavancin and vancomycin against MRSA, with vancomycin MICs of ≤2 μg/ml. Both drugs were similarly efficacious after 24 and 48 h of treatment against the hVISA strains tested. Against VISA isolates, telavancin reduced bacterial burdens significantly more than vancomycin for 1 of 4 isolates after 24 h and for 3 of 4 isolates after 48 h. These data support the potential utility of telavancin for the treatment of MRSA pneumonia caused by pathogens with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin

    In Vivo Efficacy of 1- and 2-Gram Human Simulated Prolonged Infusions of Doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

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    Doripenem is a new carbapenem antimicrobial with activity against a range of gram-negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Previous animal studies have shown efficacy of a 500-mg dose of doripenem given as a 4-h infusion against P. aeruginosa with MICs of ≤4 μg/ml. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 1- and 2-g-dose prolonged infusions of doripenem against a wide range of P. aeruginosa isolates in the neutropenic murine thigh model. Eighteen clinical P. aeruginosa isolates (MIC range, 2 to 32 μg/ml) were used; 15 of these were multidrug resistant. After infection, groups of mice were administered doripenem doses designed to simulate the free time above the MIC (fT>MIC) observed in humans given 1 or 2 g of doripenem every 8 h as a 4-h infusion. Efficacy correlated well with published fT>MIC bactericidal targets of 40%. After 24 h, 1- and 2-g doses achieved approximately ≥2 log decreases in CFU against isolates with MICs of ≤8 and 16 μg/ml, respectively (fT>MIC range, 52.5 to 95%). Results with organisms with higher MICs, where fT>MIC was 0%, were variable, including both increases and decreases in CFU. Compared with 1-g doses, statistically greater efficacy was noted for 2-g doses against three of the eight isolates with MICs of ≥16 μg/ml. While MIC distributions of P. aeruginosa at present necessitate increased exposures for only the most-resistant isolates, the ability of increased doses to achieve pharmacodynamic targets and the efficacy observed when these targets were attained could prove useful when these resistant isolates are encountered

    Pharmacodynamics of Tigecycline against Phenotypically Diverse Staphylococcus aureus Isolates in a Murine Thigh Model ▿

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    Tigecycline is a currently marketed antimicrobial agent with activity against resistant gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Despite the proven efficacy of tigecycline in the treatment of infections caused by these pathogens, questions remain as to the exposure-response relationship best associated with its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to define this relationship against seven distinct S. aureus isolates by using a neutropenic murine thigh model. Single-dose pharmacokinetics were evaluated, and free drug exposures were calculated after determination of protein binding. Doses of 1.56 to 400 mg/kg of body weight divided 1 to 8 times daily were administered against two methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, two hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates, and three community-associated (CA-MRSA) isolates. Tigecycline pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model, with a mean half-life of 9.9 h. Protein binding was dose dependent (range, 92.9 to 81.2%). MICs were 0.25 μg/ml for all isolates, except for HA-MRSA 56 (MIC, 0.5 μg/ml) and CA-MRSA 156 (MIC, 0.125 μg/ml). Tigecycline displayed efficacy against all isolates, producing maximum decreases in log10 numbers of CFU/ml of 1.8 to 2.3 from 0-h controls. Mean correlation coefficients for free-drug (f) concentration exposures derived from the parameters fT>MIC (the percentage of time during which the concentration of f remains above the MIC), fCmax/MIC (the ratio of the maximum concentration of f to the MIC), and fAUC/MIC (the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve of f to the MIC) were 0.622, 0.812, and 0.958, respectively. Values for the mean effective exposure index at 80% (EI80) and 50% (EI50) for fAUC/MIC were 5.4 μg/ml (range, 2.8 to 13 μg/ml) and 2.6 μg/ml (range, 0.6 to 5.1 μg/ml), respectively. Experiments with nonneutropenic mice infected with CA-MRSA 156 resulted in maximum kill at all fAUC/MIC exposures tested (1.8 to 8.8 μg/ml). The fAUC/MIC ratio is the pharmacodynamic parameter most predictive of tigecycline efficacy. Furthermore, the presence of a functioning immune system markedly reduces the required exposure

    Characterizing In Vivo

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    Efficacy of Human Simulated Exposures of Ceftaroline Administered at 600 Milligrams Every 12 Hours against Phenotypically Diverse Staphylococcus aureus Isolates▿

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    Ceftaroline exhibits bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus, as well as common Gram-negative pathogens. This study evaluated the efficacy of human simulated exposures of ceftaroline against S. aureus in both the neutropenic and immunocompetent mouse thigh infection models. Twenty-six S. aureus isolates (4 MSSA, 22 MRSA) with ceftaroline MICs ranging from 0.125 to 4 μg/ml were collected. All isolates were tested in the neutropenic model and a subset of 13 MRSA isolates were tested in the immunocompetent model. Two hours after inoculation, a ceftaroline regimen that simulated the percentage of the dosing interval that free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC of the infecting organism (fT>MIC) of humans administered ceftaroline at 600 mg every 12 h (q12h) infused over 1 h was given. The change in log10 CFU/ml after 24 h of treatment was analyzed relative to the 0- and 24-h controls for neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, respectively. The human simulated regimen resulted in efficacy against all isolates tested in both infection models. In the neutropenic model, a 0.95 to 3.28 log10 CFU/ml reduction was observed when compared with the 0-h control, whereas for the immunocompetent model, all isolates obtained a >1 log10 CFU/ml reduction (log10 CFU/ml reduction range: 1.06 to 2.43) in bacterial density. Irrespective of immune competency, a reduction in bacterial density was observed at the highest MIC of 4 μg/ml (fT>MIC of 27.5%). Human simulated exposures of ceftaroline 600 mg q12h provided predictable efficacy against all tested S. aureus isolates in the mouse thigh model independent of immune status. These data support the clinical utility of ceftaroline against S. aureus, including MRSA, with MICs of ≤4 μg/ml

    Clinical Pharmacodynamics of Cefepime in Patients Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

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    We evaluated cefepime exposures in patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa to identify the pharmacodynamic relationship predictive of microbiological response. Patients with non-urinary tract P. aeruginosa infections and treated with cefepime were included. Free cefepime exposures were estimated by using a validated population pharmacokinetic model. P. aeruginosa MICs were determined by Etest and pharmacodynamic indices (the percentage of the dosing interval that the free drug concentration remains above the MIC of the infecting organism [fT > MIC], the ratio of the minimum concentration of free drug to the MIC [fCmin/MIC], and the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve for free drug to the MIC [fAUC/MIC]) were calculated for each patient. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to partition the pharmacodynamic parameters for prediction of the microbiological response. Monte Carlo simulation was utilized to determine the optimal dosing regimens needed to achieve the pharmacodynamic target. Fifty-six patients with pneumonia (66.1%), skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) (25%), and bacteremia (8.9%) were included. Twenty-four (42.9%) patients failed cefepime therapy. The MICs ranged from 0.75 to 96 μg/ml, resulting in median fT > MIC, fCmin/MIC, and fAUC/MIC exposures of 100% (range, 0.8 to 100%), 4.3 (range, 0.1 to 27.3), and 206.2 (range, 4.2 to 1,028.7), respectively. Microbiological failure was associated with an fT > MIC of ≤60% (77.8% failed cefepime therapy when fT > MIC was ≤60%, whereas 36.2% failed cefepime therapy when fT > MIC was >60%; P = 0.013). A similar fT > MIC target of ≤63.9% (P = 0.009) was identified when skin and skin structure infections were excluded. While controlling for the SSSI source (odds ratio [OR], 0.18 [95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 1.19]; P = 0.07) and combination therapy (OR, 2.15 [95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 7.88]; P = 0.25), patients with fT > MIC values of ≤60% were 8.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 55.6 times) more likely to experience a poor microbiological response. Cefepime doses of at least 2 g every 8 h are required to achieve this target against CLSI-defined susceptible P. aeruginosa organisms in patients with normal renal function. In patients with non-urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa, achievement of cefepime exposures of >60% fT > MIC will minimize the possibility of a poor microbiological response

    Pharmacokinetics and Pulmonary Disposition of Tedizolid and Linezolid in a Murine Pneumonia Model under Variable Conditions

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    In vivo pharmacokinetics are often evaluated in only one variation of an infection model, and the resulting exposures are assumed to be similar in each model. We evaluated and compared the effect of lung infection and immune status on the murine pharmacokinetics and pulmonary disposition of tedizolid and linezolid. Both factors resulted in differing blood and pulmonary exposure profiles, with similar trends for tedizolid and linezolid. These data highlight the importance of pharmacokinetic confirmation in each model
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