17 research outputs found

    Overzicht adaptatie-gerelateerd projecten Waddenkust

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    Het recente ‘Ontwerp Nationale Water Plan 2022-2027’ (NWP) waarin nadrukkelijk klimaatverandering als één van de belangrijk uitdagingen staat benoemd, nieuwe klimaatscenario’s, op handen zijnde grote dijkversterkingen, de ‘Programmatische Aanpak Grote Wateren’ (PAGW) en het visiedocument ‘Agenda voor het Waddengebied 2050’ leiden tot vele ideeën en initiatieven rond strategieën en projecten gericht op het klimaatbestendig maken van het Waddengebied. Die veelheid aan ideeën en initiatieven komen vanuit zowel belangenorganisaties, bewoners, gebruikers, bedrijven, overheden, onderzoekers als architectenbureaus, en vormen het bewijs dat de omgeving zich sterk betrokken voelt bij beleidsontwikkeling en projecten rond klimaatadaptatie van de Waddenkust. Het Omgevingsberaad Waddengebied en de Waddenacademie hebben het initiatief genomen om een overzicht te maken van actuele (grote) programma’s, projecten, plannen en onderzoek voor klimaatadaptatie en natuurontwikkeling langs de Waddenkust

    Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

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    In the Netherlands, the concept of a multifunctional dike has already often been implemented, and has been identified as a promising climate adaptation measure. In a multifunctional dike, functions like urban development, transport infrastructure, recreation, agriculture or nature are deliberately combined with its primary flood protection function. This means that the design must be based on the requirements and life span of all different functions, while in a monofunctional dike only the flood protection function is considered. By accommodating other functions, a multifunctional dike may easier fit into, or even contribute to the quality of the landscape. Moreover, these other functions may help in financing the flood protection works, but governance is more complicated. To avoid costly adjustments forthcoming from changed safety standards, incorporation of multiple functions can require a more “robust” flood defence than a monofunctional flood defence. A robust flood defence can withstand more extreme situations than required by the present safety standards, and has a substantially lower flooding probability. Therefore, a multifunctional dike may be attractive in view of the uncertainties regarding the effects of climate change and a changing world. Moreover, it will result in reduced flood risk. As part of the Dutch Delta programme, several explorative studies on multifunctional dikes were initiated. Most studies focused on urban areas, but also in the rural area interest emerged for multifunctional dikes, e.g. for the integration of salt marshes into the flood defences. Marshes provide valuable habitat for vegetation and invertebrate species, and are important for wading birds. Furthermore, under condition of abundant sediment availability they can keep pace with sea level rise. Explorative modelling results indicate that vegetated forelands affect wave heights, even under extreme conditions. However, the inclusion of a vegetated foreland into the dike design does not automatically mean that nature values and flood protection are well integrated. Flood protection imposes rather different requirements on the extent and features of marshes than nature conservation and development. Wave damping is most effective with a high and stable marsh, while nature thrives with dynamic processes and differences in elevation. Therefore, only a design that allows natural marsh dynamics and includes different marsh zones could combine nature values with flood protection. In practice, this means a dike design with an uncertain foreland, that offers space for natural processes. The uncertainty in foreland development reduces the possible flood risk reduction. In our paper we describe the critical points of interest concerning risk reduction in this system

    Meer biodiversiteit met brede groene dijken? : een verkenning van de vegetatie op de Waddenzeedijken

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    In dit rapport worden de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de brede groene Waddenzeedijken in Duitsland en Denemarken vergeleken met de vegetaties op het buitentalud van de gangbare Waddenzeedijken in Nederland, met als doel om inzicht te krijgen in de mogelijke meerwaarde van het Brede Groene Dijk-concept voor biodiversiteit, en voor vegetatie in het bijzonder

    Wide Green Dikes : A sustainable adaptation option with benefits for both nature and landscape values?

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    The dual task of reinforcing the dikes along the Dutch coast and preparing for the effects of climate change have stimulated a search for innovative dike designs. Triggered by the presence of gently sloped grass-covered dikes that merge smoothly into the adjacent salt marshes along the German Wadden Sea coast, we assessed the potential costs and benefits of just such a ‘Wide Green Dike’ along the Dutch Wadden Sea coast, compared to the ‘Traditional Dike’, which is now used. The Traditional Dike has a steeper seaward slope and a stone or asphalt revetment along the dike toe. The assessment criteria were identified by local experts. We investigated, particularly, the spatial impact of a Wide Green Dike on the adjacent salt marshes under various climate scenarios. We also looked at the initial costs and clay demand for both dike designs. Furthermore, we conducted a quick-scan of the vegetation present halfway up the seaward slope of a Traditional Dike in the Netherlands and a Wide Green Dike nearby in Germany. Our analysis revealed four primary advantages of use of a Wide Green Dike along the Dutch part of the Dollard estuary: lower initial costs (based on standard unit prices), greater ease of doing repairs, increased adaptability and enhanced spatial quality compared to a Traditional Dike. Both types of dike were designed to withstand an extreme storm surge with an occurrence probability of 1/4000 years. Both fully met legally mandated engineering standards as well. Though the required crest height is comparable for both designs, the Wide Green Dike had a larger areal footprint, and would overlap more Natura 2000 area than a Traditional Dike. There would thus be a trade-off concerning salt-marsh area. Moreover, the vegetation examined halfway up the seaward slope of the German Wide Green Dike offered little ecological value. Nonetheless, cyclic harvesting of sediment for periodic dike reinforcement appeared to be a sustainable option for adapting to future sea level rise

    How “wide green dikes” were reintroduced in The Netherlands: a case study of the uptake of an innovative measure in long-term strategic delta planning

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    This article describes and analyzes the reintroduction of the “wide green dike” in the Netherlands. It is a noteworthy example of implementation of an innovation in long-term strategic delta planning. The Dutch Delta Program was central herein. Pursuing its ambition to make the Netherlands climate-proof, the Delta Program invited a diverse set of actors to participate in developing a long-term adaptation plan, and also to propose innovative short-term measures to help realize that plan. The wide green dike was actively promoted by a local water board, with involvement of scientists and nature conservation organizations. A stepwise participatory process resulted in national-level recognition of the potential of the wide green dike, particularly due to its “green” and “adaptability” characteristics. Alignment of flood protection and climate adaptation goals with nature conservation objectives, as well as collaboration with new actors, were all crucial in the reintroduction of this innovation

    Sedimentation, sediment grain size, vegetation composition and vegetation characteristics on a salt marsh in nature reserve the Slufter (Wadden island Texel, the Netherlands)

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    Data on sedimentation, sediment grain size, vegetation composition and vegetation characteristics of a field experiment on a salt marsh in nature reserve the Slufter (Wadden island Texel, the Netherlands)

    Characteristics of realigned dikes in coastal Europe : Overview and opportunities for nature-based flood protection

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    Managed realignment is the landward relocation of flood infrastructure to re-establish tidal exchange on formerly reclaimed land. Managed realignment can be seen as a nature-based flood defence system that combines flood protection by the realigned dike (artificial) and restored saltmarshes (nature-based). So far, research on coastal managed realignment is primarily directed to saltmarsh restoration on formerly reclaimed land. This study focuses on the realigned dikes. The aim of this research is to characterize realigned dikes and to indicate the characteristics that offer opportunities for nature-based flood protection. We categorized 90 European coastal managed realignment projects into two realigned dike groups: (1) Newly built landward dikes and (2) Existing landward dikes of former multiple dike systems. The second group has two subcategories: (2a) Former hinterland dikes and (2b) Realignments within summer polders. For each group we present the realigned dike characteristics of a representative case study. We consider that the use of existing landward dikes or local construction material make realignment more sustainable. From a nature-based flood protection perspective, the presence of an artificial dike is ambiguous. Our results show that targeted and expected saltmarsh restoration at managed realignment does not necessarily result in a greener realigned dike design that suits for combined flood protection with restored saltmarshes. We recommend coastal managers to explicitly take combined flood protection into account in the realigned dike design and steer the topography of the realignment site to facilitate nature-based flood protection and promote surface elevation increase seaward of the realigned dike in response to sea level rise. This makes managed realignment a nature-based flood defence zone for now and for the future

    Integration of water management and land consolidation in rural areas to adapt to climate change : Experiences from Poland and the Netherlands

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    Rural areas face major challenges in adapting to the impacts of climate change, in particular to floods and droughts. This calls for both adaptation of rural functions and climate-proof and water-resilient design of the rural area, often implying improvement of water retention and flood protection. Implementation of such climate change-related goals in spatial planning often involves adaptations in water management, perhaps even leading to land consolidation. Water management and land consolidation thus form important tools for spatial adaptation. Land consolidation is also a tool to support the integration of other claims that need room, such as agriculture, nature, landscape and tourism functions. This paper investigates the history of and approaches to land consolidation and water management in Poland and the Netherlands, and illustrates the integration of land consolidation and water management to realize a multifunctional climate resilient rural area by two examples in each country. We qualitatively compared the extent to which the planned activities in water retention and flood protection were realized and planned results were achieved for other functions. We found that the two adaptation measures, water retention and flood protection, were more effective in the Netherlands, stemming from ample attention for the impact of climate change and the incorporation of climate change adaptation goals in water policy. Furthermore, the water retention and flood protection measures in the Netherlands better serve multiple functions: agriculture, nature, recreation, landscape and infrastructure. Reasons for this are the multidisciplinary and participatory approach, attention to public awareness and communication and promotion of the process. On the other hand, the Dutch have much to learn from Poland's vast, undisturbed natural areas, which contribute to a climate resilient landscape. Both Poland and the Netherlands could therefore benefit from bringing together ideas and experiences regarding climate proofing the rural area

    Integration of water management and land consolidation in rural areas to adapt to climate change : Experiences from Poland and the Netherlands

    No full text
    Rural areas face major challenges in adapting to the impacts of climate change, in particular to floods and droughts. This calls for both adaptation of rural functions and climate-proof and water-resilient design of the rural area, often implying improvement of water retention and flood protection. Implementation of such climate change-related goals in spatial planning often involves adaptations in water management, perhaps even leading to land consolidation. Water management and land consolidation thus form important tools for spatial adaptation. Land consolidation is also a tool to support the integration of other claims that need room, such as agriculture, nature, landscape and tourism functions. This paper investigates the history of and approaches to land consolidation and water management in Poland and the Netherlands, and illustrates the integration of land consolidation and water management to realize a multifunctional climate resilient rural area by two examples in each country. We qualitatively compared the extent to which the planned activities in water retention and flood protection were realized and planned results were achieved for other functions. We found that the two adaptation measures, water retention and flood protection, were more effective in the Netherlands, stemming from ample attention for the impact of climate change and the incorporation of climate change adaptation goals in water policy. Furthermore, the water retention and flood protection measures in the Netherlands better serve multiple functions: agriculture, nature, recreation, landscape and infrastructure. Reasons for this are the multidisciplinary and participatory approach, attention to public awareness and communication and promotion of the process. On the other hand, the Dutch have much to learn from Poland's vast, undisturbed natural areas, which contribute to a climate resilient landscape. Both Poland and the Netherlands could therefore benefit from bringing together ideas and experiences regarding climate proofing the rural area
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