246 research outputs found

    Blood group probabilities by next of kin

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    For rare blood groups the recruitment of donor relatives, for example siblings, is expected to be effective, since the probability of a similar rare blood group is likely. However, the likelihood differs between blood groups and is not commonly available. This paper provides a unified mathematical formulation to calculate such likelihoods. From a mathematical and probabilistic point of view, it is shown that these likelihoods can be obtained from the computation of a stationary genotype distribution. This, in turn, can be brought down to a system of quadratic stochastic operators. A generic mathematical approach is presented which directly leads to a stationary genotype distribution for arbitrary blood groups. The approach enables an exact computation for the effectiveness of recruiting next of kin for blood donorship. Next to an illustration of computations for ‘standard’ ABO and Rhesus-D blood groups, it is particularly illustrated for the extended Rhesus blood group system. Also other applications requiring next of kin blood group associations can be solved directly by using the unified mathematical formulation

    Stronger relation between impairment and manual capacity in the non-dominant hand than the dominant hand in congenital hand differences; Implications for surgical and therapeutic interventions

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    Objectives To evaluate manual activity capacity (i.e. activity capacity to perform hand activities) and its relation with body functions of the hand and forearm in children with congenital hand differences (CHD) Methods We assessed 10-14 year-old children with CHD (N = 106) using a functional handgrips test. Measurements of body functions included joint mobility and muscle strength. Patient characteristics were hand dominance and severity. Results We found a stronger relation between body functions and manual activity capacity in non-dominant hands than dominant hands. Dominant hands scored significantly higher on manual activity capacity than nondominant hands that were similarly impaired at body functions level. Severity of the CHD and body functions had only small effects on manual activity capacity. Conclusion The relation between body functions and manual activity capacity is stronger in non-dominant hands than dominant hands, indicating that improvement in body functions lead to larger changes in manual activity capacity in the non-dominant hand. This may suggest that in bilaterally-affected children surgery should be done at the non-dominant hand first since this hand would benefit most from surgery-induced body functions improvement

    Agonist signalling properties of radiotracers used for imaging of dopamine D-2/3 receptors

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    Background: Dopamine D-2/3 receptor (D2/3R) agonist radiopharmaceuticals are considered superior to antagonists to detect dopamine release, e.g. induced by amphetamines. Agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2R, which has been proposed as the reason why agonists are more sensitive to detect dopamine release than antagonist radiopharmaceuticals, but this theory has been challenged. Interestingly, not all agonists similarly activate the classic cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP) and the beta-arrestin-2 pathway, some stimulate preferentially one of these pathways; a phenomenon called biased agonism. Because these pathways can be affected separately by pathologies or drugs (including dopamine releasers), it is important to know how agonist radiotracers act on these pathways. Therefore, we characterized the intracellular signalling of the well-known D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals NPA and PHNO and of several novel D2/3R agonists. Methods: cAMP accumulation and beta-arrestin-2 recruitment were measured on cells expressing human D2R. Results: All tested agonists showed (almost) full agonism in both pathways. Conclusions: The tested D2/3R agonist radiopharmaceuticals did not exhibit biased agonism in vitro. Consequently, it is likely that drugs (including psychostimulants like amphetamines) and/or pathologies that influence the cAMP and/or the beta-arrestin-2 pathway may influence the binding of these radiopharmaceuticals

    Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a multifunctional and surface-switchable nanoemulsion platform

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    We present a multifunctional nanoparticle platform that has targeting moieties shielded by a matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) cleavable PEG coating. Upon incubation with MMP2 this surface-switchable coating is removed and the targeting ligands become available for binding. The concept was evaluated in vitro using biotin and αvβ3-integrin-specific RGD-peptide functionalized nanoparticles.National Heart, Lung, and Blood InstituteNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Program of Excellence in Nanotechnology (PEN) Award Contract HHSN268201000045C

    Evaluation of pliable bioresorbable, elastomeric aortic valve prostheses in sheep during 12 months post implantation

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    Pliable microfibrous, bioresorbable elastomeric heart valve prostheses are investigated in search of sustainable heart valve replacement. These cell-free implants recruit cells and trigger tissue formation on the valves in situ. Our aim is to investigate the behaviour of these heart valve prostheses when exposed to the high-pressure circulation. We conducted a 12-month follow-up study in sheep to evaluate the in vivo functionality and neo-tissue formation of these valves in the aortic position. All valves remained free from endocarditis, thrombotic complications and macroscopic calcifications. Cell colonisation in the leaflets was mainly restricted to the hinge area, while resorption of synthetic fibers was limited. Most valves were pliable and structurally intact (10/15), however, other valves (5/15) showed cusp thickening, retraction or holes in the leaflets. Further research is needed to assess whether in-situ heart valve tissue engineering in the aortic position is possible or whether non-resorbable synthetic pliable prostheses are preferred.</p

    Multicentric validation of proteomic biomarkers in urine specific for diabetic nephropathy

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    Background: Urine proteome analysis is rapidly emerging as a tool for diagnosis and prognosis in disease states. For diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), urinary proteome analysis was successfully applied in a pilot study. The validity of the previously established proteomic biomarkers with respect to the diagnostic and prognostic potential was assessed on a separate set of patients recruited at three different European centers. In this case-control study of 148 Caucasian patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and duration &gt;= 5 years, cases of DN were defined as albuminuria &gt;300 mg/d and diabetic retinopathy (n = 66). Controls were matched for gender and diabetes duration (n = 82). Methodology/Principal Findings: Proteome analysis was performed blinded using high-resolution capillary electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (CE-MS). Data were evaluated employing the previously developed model for DN. Upon unblinding, the model for DN showed 93.8% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity, with an AUC of 0.948 (95% CI 0.898-0.978). Of 65 previously identified peptides, 60 were significantly different between cases and controls of this study. In &lt;10% of cases and controls classification by proteome analysis not entirely resulted in the expected clinical outcome. Analysis of patient's subsequent clinical course revealed later progression to DN in some of the false positive classified DN control patients. Conclusions: These data provide the first independent confirmation that profiling of the urinary proteome by CE-MS can adequately identify subjects with DN, supporting the generalizability of this approach. The data further establish urinary collagen fragments as biomarkers for diabetes-induced renal damage that may serve as earlier and more specific biomarkers than the currently used urinary albumin
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