312 research outputs found

    Audio describing foreign films

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    This article presents the main challenges of audio describing foreign films: synchronising the translation of foreign language dialogue with audio description, identifying speakers, describing culture-bound elements, and dealing with intertextuality. The findings are discussed with a reference to an explorative study carried out among Polish viewers with visual impairments. The solutions proposed in this article include the name insertion strategy, audio introductions and a number of strategies to deal with culture-specific items in audio description, such as explicitation, naming, generalisation, specification, retention. The results of the study also demonstrate the feasibility of adopting the Translation Studies toolkit to the benefit of audio description

    Audio description for films in Poland : history, present state and future prospects

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    Rapid developments in the field of media accessibility for people with sensory impairments can be seen in numerous countries all around the world. Poland is one such country where accessibility services, such as audio description (AD), are becoming part of the audiovisual landscape and start attracting the interest of many, both in the industry and in research circles. This paper sets out to provide a detailed snapshot of the current situation in Poland with regard to the accessibility of films for persons with vision loss. We start with presenting a brief historical outline of the AD for films in Poland and then move on to discuss its present state. Special attention is given to challenges that need to be faced to mainstream accessibility. The data discussed in this article was obtained through literature review, desk research and personal contact with different actors of the AD provision chain in Poland. The results show that although AD is developing rapidly in Poland, it must face challenges in five main areas: (1) delivery and infrastructure; (2) distribution; (3) legislation; (4) communication, cooperation and coordination, and (5) financing

    Ocjena otpornosti drva na utjecaj umjetnih atmosferskih uvjeta mjerenjem tla─Źne ─Źvrsto─çe

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    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of artificial weathering on selected properties of wood. This paper presents the changes of incompressive strength of wood along fi bers. The study involved wood of different density and anatomy - 17 species of tropical wood commercially available in Europe and Scots pine and European oak. The specimens were exposed to artificial weathering consisting of soaking wood in water, drying at 70 ┬░C and exposure to UV radiation. Three-step aging cycle was repeated 140 times. In general, the tested wood species changed their compressive strength differently under the influence of artificial weathering. The process of artificial weathering caused a loss of strength of all tested wood species. The extent of changes depended on initial properties of wood (especially density) and anatomy. The changes were most pronounced at the beginning of the artificial weathering process.Cilj istra┼żivanja bio je utvrditi utjecaj umjetnih atmosferskih uvjeta na promatrana svojstva drva. U radu je prikazana promjena tla─Źne ─Źvrsto─çe drva uzdu┼ż vlakanaca. Istra┼żivanje je provedeno na vrstama drva razli─Źite gusto─çe i anatomske gra─Ĺe ÔÇô istra┼żeno je 17 vrsta tropskog drva komercijalno dostupnoga u Europi te drvo obi─Źnog bora i europskog hrasta. Uzorci su bili izlo┼żeni umjetnim atmosferskim uvjetima: naizmjeni─Źnom potapanju drva u vodi, su┼íenju na 70 ┬░C i izlaganju UV zra─Źenju. Ciklus koji se sastojao od ta tri postupka ponovljen je 140 puta. Op─çenito, promjena tla─Źne ─Źvrsto─ça drva pod utjecajem umjetnih atmosferskih uvjeta za istra┼żivane je vrste drva razli─Źita. Izlaganje umjetnim atmosferskim uvjetima prouzro─Źilo je smanjenje tla─Źne ─Źvrsto─çe svih istra┼żivanih vrsta drva. Opseg promjena nakon izlaganja povezan je s po─Źetnim svojstvima drva (posebno s gusto─çom) i anatomskom gra─Ĺom. Najve─çi intenzitet promjena zabilje┼żen je na po─Źetku izlaganja umjetnim atmosferskim uvjetima

    Odre─Ĺivanje sorpcijskih svojstava nekih tropskih vrsta drva

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    This study is primarily focused on broadening the knowledge on sorptive properties of tropical wood species. The main objective of this research was to determine the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of 17 selected tropical wood species vital to the flooring industry in Europe. For comparison, selected European wood species ÔÇô European beech, European oak and Scots pine, were also tested. Differences in the EMC between wood from temperate and tropical zones were established, resulting in the necessity of revising the knowledge, especially in wooden floor production. The results show that the EMC of tropical wood species is generally lower than that of temperate region wood species. African padouk, Teak, Afzelia and Ipe showed the lowest values of moisture content. Furthermore these wood species showed the lowest values of fibre saturation point (17.7 %, 22.5 %, 19.7 % and 18.7 %, respectively). Secondly, it was established that the basic density has significant influence on sorption properties of tested wood species. Further to the above, it was concluded that - the higher wood basic density, the larger are the changes of dimensions. Consequently, based on the results obtained, the possibility of supplementing the recommendations in industry standards regarding wooden floors should be considered.Studija je ponajprije usredoto─Źena na ┼íirenje znanja o sorpcijskim svojstvima tropskih vrsta drva. Glavni je cilj istra┼żivanja bio utvrditi ravnote┼żni sadr┼żaj vode (EMC) za 17 odabranih tropskih vrsta drva va┼żnih za industriju podnih obloga u Europi. Radi usporedbe, ispitane su i ove europske vrste drva: bukva, hrast i obi─Źni bor. Utvr─Ĺene su razlike u vrijednostima EMC-a izme─Ĺu vrsta drva iz umjerenih i vrsta drva iz tropskih zona, ┼íto upu─çuje na potrebu revizije znanja, posebno u proizvodnji drvenih podnih obloga. Rezultati su pokazali da je vrijednost EMC-a tropskih vrsta drva op─çenito ni┼ża nego za vrste iz umjerenog podru─Źja. Najni┼że vrijednosti ravnote┼żnog sadr┼żaja vode zabilje┼żene su za drvo afri─Źkog padouka, tika, afzelije i ipea. Nadalje, za te su vrste drva dobivene i najni┼że vrijednosti to─Źke zasi─çenja vlakanaca (17,7; 22,5; 19,7; 18,7 %). Osim toga, utvr─Ĺeno je da nominalna gusto─ça drva ima zna─Źajan utjecaj na sorpcijska svojstva ispitivanih vrsta drva. Iz toga se mo┼że zaklju─Źiti da ─çe posljedica ve─çe nominalne gusto─çe drva biti i ve─çe promjene dimenzija drva. Sukladno tome, treba razmotriti dono┼íenje dopune preporuka u industrijskim standardima koji se odnose na drvene podne obloge

    Utjecaj parametara rezanja na kvalitetu površine bukovine

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    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of flat slicing processes on wood surface characteristics of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The relation between wettability, roughness and machining methods were studied. Two different wood thickness (3.4 and 4.0 mm) and three levels of compression during slicing (67.5 %, 57.5 % and 47.5 % of desired veneer thickness) were used to prepare surfaces prior to testing. The smaller variation of the thickness of thinner veneers was observed. No significant impact of compression on variation of the thickness was found. The contact angle was lower when roughness measured parallel to the grain was higher. The influence of selected compression on roughness of European beech veneers measured perpendicular to the grain was confirmed. This indicated that the influence of the set of machining processes, such as pressure bar setting during slicing, is significant for wooden veneers surface properties.Glavni cilj rada bio je procijeniti u─Źinke plo┼ínog rezanja furnira na svojstva povr┼íine bukovine (Fagus sylvatica L.). Prou─Źavan je odnos izme─Ĺu kva┼íenja i hrapavosti bukovine i metoda rezanja furnira. Za pripremu povr┼íine za ispitivanja upotrijebljene su dvije razli─Źite debljine furnira (3,4 i 4,0 mm) i tri razine kompresije tijekom rezanja furnira (67,5, 57,5 i 47,5 % ┼żeljene debljine furnira). Uo─Źena su manja odstupanja debljine tanjih furnira. Nije utvr─Ĺen zna─Źajan utjecaj kompresije na varijacije debljine furnira. Kontaktni kut bio je manji kada je hrapavost paralelno s vlakancima drva bila ve─ça. Potvr─Ĺen je utjecaj odabranog pritiska na hrapavost bukova furnira okomito na vlakanca drva. To je pokazalo da postavke procesa obrade, primjerice odabir pritiska tijekom rezanja, znatno utje─Źu na svojstva povr┼íine furnira

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