30,627 research outputs found

    Engineered surfaces that promote capture of latent proteins to facilitate integrin-mediated mechanical activation of growth factors

    No full text
    Conventional osteogenic platforms utilize active growth factors to repair bone defects that are extensive in size, but they can adversely affect patient health. Here, an unconventional osteogenic platform is reported that functions by promoting capture of inactive osteogenic growth factor molecules to the site of cell growth for subsequent integrin-mediated activation, using a recombinant fragment of latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein-1 (rLTBP1). It is shown that rLTBP1 binds to the growth-factor- and integrin-binding domains of fibronectin on poly(ethyl acrylate) surfaces, which immobilizes rLTBP1 and promotes the binding of latency associated peptide (LAP), within which inactive transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is bound. rLTBP1 facilitates the interaction of LAP with integrin β1 and the subsequent mechanically driven release of TGF-β1 to stimulate canonical TGF-β1 signaling, activating osteogenic marker expression in vitro and complete regeneration of a critical-sized bone defect in vivo

    The Punchline of 'The Joke': The Impact of Process Corruption in the Queensland Police Force, 1957-1987

    No full text
    The Queensland Police Force became virtually synonymous with corruption in the aftermath of the Fitzgerald Inquiry, a judicial examination of police misconduct in that state that took place between 1987 and 1989. While many of the Fitzgerald Inquiry’s findings related to the illicit involvement of police with organised crime, this thesis proposes that it was in fact process corruption that had the greatest impact on the enforcement of law and order in Queensland in the thirty years from 1957 to 1987. It explores process corruption in a variety of forms, from excessive force to the fabrication of evidence, and makes the case that the Queensland Police Force was routinely reliant on procedural misconduct to assert its authority over the community. The thesis examines the way process corruption was exercised against several vulnerable subpopulations in Queensland, including the LGBTQI community, young people, and the protest movement. In doing so, it exposes a systemic pattern of enforcement where process corruption was both tolerated and encouraged by senior police and the conservative government that presided over Queensland in this era

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

    No full text
    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb−1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ±\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Multiplicity dependence of σψ(2S)/σJ/ψ\sigma_{\psi(2S)}/\sigma_{J/\psi} in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV

    No full text
    International audienceThe ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV is measured with a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 658 pb−1^{-1}. The ratio is measured for both prompt and non-prompt ψ(2S)\psi(2S) and J/ψJ/\psi mesons. When there is an overlap between the rapidity ranges over which multiplicity and charmonia production are measured, a multiplicity-dependent modification of the ratio is observed for prompt mesons. No significant multiplicity dependence is found when the ranges do not overlap. For non-prompt production, the ψ(2S)−to−J/ψ\psi(2S)-to-J/\psi production ratio is roughly independent of multiplicity irrespective of the rapidity range over which the multiplicity is measured. The results are compared to predictions of the co-mover model and agree well except in the low multiplicity region. The ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons are cross-checked with other measurements in di-lepton channels and found to be compatible

    International Consensus Criteria for Pediatric Sepsis and Septic Shock.

    Get PDF
    ImportanceSepsis is a leading cause of death among children worldwide. Current pediatric-specific criteria for sepsis were published in 2005 based on expert opinion. In 2016, the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) defined sepsis as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, but it excluded children.ObjectiveTo update and evaluate criteria for sepsis and septic shock in children.Evidence reviewThe Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) convened a task force of 35 pediatric experts in critical care, emergency medicine, infectious diseases, general pediatrics, nursing, public health, and neonatology from 6 continents. Using evidence from an international survey, systematic review and meta-analysis, and a new organ dysfunction score developed based on more than 3 million electronic health record encounters from 10 sites on 4 continents, a modified Delphi consensus process was employed to develop criteria.FindingsBased on survey data, most pediatric clinicians used sepsis to refer to infection with life-threatening organ dysfunction, which differed from prior pediatric sepsis criteria that used systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which have poor predictive properties, and included the redundant term, severe sepsis. The SCCM task force recommends that sepsis in children be identified by a Phoenix Sepsis Score of at least 2 points in children with suspected infection, which indicates potentially life-threatening dysfunction of the respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and/or neurological systems. Children with a Phoenix Sepsis Score of at least 2 points had in-hospital mortality of 7.1% in higher-resource settings and 28.5% in lower-resource settings, more than 8 times that of children with suspected infection not meeting these criteria. Mortality was higher in children who had organ dysfunction in at least 1 of 4-respiratory, cardiovascular, coagulation, and/or neurological-organ systems that was not the primary site of infection. Septic shock was defined as children with sepsis who had cardiovascular dysfunction, indicated by at least 1 cardiovascular point in the Phoenix Sepsis Score, which included severe hypotension for age, blood lactate exceeding 5 mmol/L, or need for vasoactive medication. Children with septic shock had an in-hospital mortality rate of 10.8% and 33.5% in higher- and lower-resource settings, respectively.Conclusions and relevanceThe Phoenix sepsis criteria for sepsis and septic shock in children were derived and validated by the international SCCM Pediatric Sepsis Definition Task Force using a large international database and survey, systematic review and meta-analysis, and modified Delphi consensus approach. A Phoenix Sepsis Score of at least 2 identified potentially life-threatening organ dysfunction in children younger than 18 years with infection, and its use has the potential to improve clinical care, epidemiological assessment, and research in pediatric sepsis and septic shock around the world

    The ability of contemporary cardiologists to judge the ischemic impact of a coronary lesion visually

    Get PDF
    Background: Landmark trials showed that invasive pressure measurement (Fractional Flow Reserve, FFR) was a better guide to coronary stenting than visual assessment. However, present-day interventionists have benefited from extensive research and personal experience of mapping anatomy to hemodynamics. Aims: To determine if visual assessment of the angiogram performs as well as invasive measurement of coronary physiology. Methods: 25 interventional cardiologists independently visually assessed the single vessel coronary disease of 200 randomized participants in The Objective Randomized Blinded Investigation with optimal medical Therapy of Angioplasty in stable angina trial (ORBITA). They gave a visual prediction of the FFR and Instantaneous Wave-free Ratio (iFR), denoted vFFR and viFR respectively. Each judged each lesion on 2 occasions, so that every lesion had 50 vFFR, and 50 viFR assessments. The group consensus visual estimates (vFFR-group and viFR-group) and individual cardiologists' visual estimates (vFFR-individual and viFR-individual) were tested alongside invasively measured FFR and iFR for their ability to predict the placebo-controlled reduction in stress echo ischemia with stenting. Results: Placebo-controlled ischemia improvement with stenting was predicted by vFFR-group (p < 0.0001) and viFR-group (p < 0.0001), vFFR-individual (p < 0.0001) and viFR-individual (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between the predictive performance of the group visual estimates and their invasive counterparts: p = 0.53 for vFFR vs FFR and p = 0.56 for viFR vs iFR. Conclusion: Visual assessment of the angiogram by contemporary experts, provides significant additional information on the amount of ischaemia which can be relieved by placebo-controlled stenting in single vessel coronary artery disease

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV