3,065 research outputs found

    Equilibrium analysis in multi-echelon supply chain with multi-dimensional utilities of inertial players

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    In a supply chain, the importance of information elicitation from the supply chain players is vital to design supply chain network. The rationality and self-centredness of these players causes the information asymmetry in the supply chain and thus situation of conflict and non-participation of the players in the network design process. In such situations, it is required to analyse the supply chain players’ behaviour in order to explore potential for coordination through incentives. In this paper, a novel approach of social utility analysis is proposed to elicit the information for supply chain coordination among the supply chain players in a dyadic relationship – supplier and buyer. In principal, we consider a monopsony situation where buyer is a dominant player. With the objective of maximizing the social utility, efforts have been made to value behavioural issues in supply chain. On the other hand, the reluctance of player due to the information asymmetry is measured in the form of inertia – an offset to the supply chain profit. The suppliers’ behaviour is analysed with three distinct level of risk for two types of the product in procurement process. The useful insight from this paper is in supplier selection process where the reluctance of supplier offsets supply chain profit. The paper provides recommendations to supply chain managers for efficient decision-making ability in supplier selection process

    The Schro¨\ddot{o}dinger-Poisson equations as the large-N limit of the Newtonian N-body system: applications to the large scale dark matter dynamics

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    In this paper it is argued how the dynamics of the classical Newtonian N-body system can be described in terms of the Schro¨\ddot{o}dinger-Poisson equations in the large NN limit. This result is based on the stochastic quantization introduced by Nelson, and on the Calogero conjecture. According to the Calogero conjecture, the emerging effective Planck constant is computed in terms of the parameters of the N-body system as M5/3G1/2(N/)1/6\hbar \sim M^{5/3} G^{1/2} (N/)^{1/6}, where is GG the gravitational constant, NN and MM are the number and the mass of the bodies, and is their average density. The relevance of this result in the context of large scale structure formation is discussed. In particular, this finding gives a further argument in support of the validity of the Schro¨\ddot{o}dinger method as numerical double of the N-body simulations of dark matter dynamics at large cosmological scales.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Euro. Phys. J.

    Mathematical modeling and comparison of protein size distribution in different plant, animal, fungal and microbial species reveals a negative correlation between protein size and protein number, thus providing insight into the evolution of proteomes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The sizes of proteins are relevant to their biochemical structure and for their biological function. The statistical distribution of protein lengths across a diverse set of taxa can provide hints about the evolution of proteomes.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Using the full genomic sequences of over 1,302 prokaryotic and 140 eukaryotic species two datasets containing 1.2 and 6.1 million proteins were generated and analyzed statistically. The lengthwise distribution of proteins can be roughly described with a gamma type or log-normal model, depending on the species. However the shape parameter of the gamma model has not a fixed value of 2, as previously suggested, but varies between 1.5 and 3 in different species. A gamma model with unrestricted shape parameter described best the distributions in ~48% of the species, whereas the log-normal distribution described better the observed protein sizes in 42% of the species. The gamma restricted function and the sum of exponentials distribution had a better fitting in only ~5% of the species. Eukaryotic proteins have an average size of 472 aa, whereas bacterial (320 aa) and archaeal (283 aa) proteins are significantly smaller (33-40% on average). Average protein sizes in different phylogenetic groups were: Alveolata (628 aa), Amoebozoa (533 aa), Fornicata (543 aa), Placozoa (453 aa), Eumetazoa (486 aa), Fungi (487 aa), Stramenopila (486 aa), Viridiplantae (392 aa). Amino acid composition is biased according to protein size. Protein length correlated negatively with %C, %M, %K, %F, %R, %W, %Y and positively with %D, %E, %Q, %S and %T. Prokaryotic proteins had a different protein size bias for %E, %G, %K and %M as compared to eukaryotes.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Mathematical modeling of protein length empirical distributions can be used to asses the quality of small ORFs annotation in genomic releases (detection of too many false positive small ORFs). There is a negative correlation between average protein size and total number of proteins among eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes. The %GC content is positively correlated to total protein number and protein size in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. Small proteins have a different amino acid bias than larger proteins. Compared to prokaryotic species, the evolution of eukaryotic proteomes was characterized by increased protein number (massive gene duplication) and substantial changes of protein size (domain addition/subtraction).</p

    Effects of Carbon Dioxide Aerosols on the Viability of Escherichia coli during Biofilm Dispersal

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    A periodic jet of carbon dioxide (CO2) aerosols is a very quick and effective mechanical technique to remove biofilms from various substrate surfaces. However, the impact of the aerosols on the viability of bacteria during treatment has never been evaluated. In this study, the effects of high-speed CO2 aerosols, a mixture of solid and gaseous CO2, on bacteria viability was studied. It was found that when CO2 aerosols were used to disperse biofilms of Escherichia coli, they led to a significant loss of viability, with approximately 50% of the dispersed bacteria killed in the process. By comparison, 75.6% of the biofilm-associated bacteria were viable when gently dispersed using Proteinase K and DNase I. Indirect proof that the aerosols are damaging the bacteria was found using a recombinant E. coli expressing the cyan fluorescent protein, as nearly half of the fluorescence was found in the supernatant after CO2 aerosol treatment, while the rest was associated with the bacterial pellet. In comparison, the supernatant fluorescence was only 9% when the enzymes were used to disperse the biofilm. As such, these CO2 aerosols not only remove biofilm-associated bacteria effectively but also significantly impact their viability by disrupting membrane integrity.open