822 research outputs found

    Inulin‚Äźtype fructans and short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides‚ÄĒtheir role within the food industry as fat and sugar replacers and texture modifiers‚ÄĒwhat needs to be considered!

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    Inulin and oligofructose are classes of prebiotics belonging to a group of nondigestible carbohydrates referred to as inulin‚Äźtype fructans. While short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides are enzymatically synthesized from the hydrolysis and transglycosylation of sucrose. Inulin‚Äźtype fructans and short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides act as carbon sources for selective pathways supporting digestive health including altering the composition of the gut microbiota along with improving transit time. Due to their physicochemical properties, inulin‚Äźtype fructans and short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides have been widely used in the food industry as partial replacements for both fat and sugar. Yet, levels of replacement need to be carefully considered as it may result in changes to physical and sensory properties that could be detected by consumers. Furthermore, it has been reported depending on the processing parameters used during production that inulin‚Äźtype fructans and short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides may or may not undergo structural alterations. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of inulin‚Äźtype fructans and short‚Äźchain fructooligosaccharides within the food industry as fat and sugar replacers and texture modifiers, their impact on final sensory properties, and to what degree processing parameters are likely to impact their functional properties

    Oligofructose alone and in combination with 2'fucosyllactose induces physiologically relevant changes in ő≥-aminobutyric acid and organic acid production compared to sole 2'fucosyllactose supplementation: an in vitro study

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    We explored the potential for the prebiotic oligofructose and prebiotic candidate 2'fucosyllactose, alone and in combination (50:50 blend) to induce physiologically relevant increases in neurotransmitter (ő≥-aminobutyric acid, serotonin, tryptophan, and dopamine) and organic acid (acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactate, and succinate) production as well as microbiome changes using anaerobic pH-controlled in vitro batch culture fermentations over 48 h. Changes in organic acid and neurotransmitter production were assessed by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography and, bacterial enumeration using fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. Both oligofructose and oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose combination fermentations induced physiologically relevant concentrations of ő≥-aminobutyric acid, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate at completion (all P ‚ȧ .05). A high degree of heterogeneity was seen amongst donors in both neurotransmitter and organic acid production in sole 2'FL fermentations suggesting a large responder/nonresponder status exists. Large increases in Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides numbers were detected in oligofructose fermentation, smallest increases being detected in 2'fucosyllactose fermentation. Bacterial numbers in the combined oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose fermentation were closer to that of sole oligofructose. Our results indicate that oligofructose and oligofructose/2'fucosyllactose in combination have the potential to induce physiologically relevant increases in ő≥-aminobutyric and organic acid production along with offsetting the heterogenicity seen in response to sole 2'fucosyllactose supplementation

    Food for thought! Inulin-type fructans: does the food matrix matter?

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    Food matrices can be described as the final composition of a food product which results from complex interactions between compounds found within different ingredients and the processing parameters used in production. These factors, not only impact on the final structure of a product, but also have the potential to alter both the structural integrity and bioavailability of potentially beneficial compounds present, for example, dietary fibres. As a result, there is growing curiosity amongst the scientific community on whether the food matrix may impact on the prebiotic efficacy of inulin-type fructans. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore previous food-based inulin-type fructan supplementation studies to determine whether the food matrix directly impacts on their prebiotic efficacy. Our working hypothesis is that other potentially prebiotic ingredients and components present within the food may alter inulin-type fructans prebiotic effect

    Establishing a persistent interoperability test-bed for European geospatial research

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    The development of standards for geospatial web services has been spearheaded by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) - a group of over 370 private, public and academic organisations (OGC, 1999-2009). The OGC aims to facilitate interoperability between geospatial technologies through education, standards and other initiatives. The OGC Service Architecture, described in the international standard ISO 19119, offers an abstract specification for web services covering data dissemination, processing, portrayal, workflows and other areas. The development of specifications covering each of these categories of web services has led to a significant number of geospatial data and computational services available on the World Wide Web (the Web). A project1 to establish a persistent geospatial interoperability test-bed (PTB) was commissioned in 2007 by the Association of Geographic Information Laboratories in Europe (AGILE), Commission 5 (Networks) of the European Spatial Data Research (EuroSDR) organisation and the OGC

    The BLAST View of the Star Forming Region in Aquila (ell=45deg,b=0deg)

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    We have carried out the first general submillimeter analysis of the field towards GRSMC 45.46+0.05, a massive star forming region in Aquila. The deconvolved 6 deg^2 (3\degree X 2\degree) maps provided by BLAST in 2005 at 250, 350, and 500 micron were used to perform a preliminary characterization of the clump population previously investigated in the infrared, radio, and molecular maps. Interferometric CORNISH data at 4.8 GHz have also been used to characterize the Ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIRs) within the main clumps. By means of the BLAST maps we have produced an initial census of the submillimeter structures that will be observed by Herschel, several of which are known Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs). Our spectral energy distributions of the main clumps in the field, located at ~7 kpc, reveal an active population with temperatures of T~35-40 K and masses of ~10^3 Msun for a dust emissivity index beta=1.5. The clump evolutionary stages range from evolved sources, with extended HII regions and prominent IR stellar population, to massive young stellar objects, prior to the formation of an UCHIIR.The CORNISH data have revealed the details of the stellar content and structure of the UCHIIRs. In most cases, the ionizing stars corresponding to the brightest radio detections are capable of accounting for the clump bolometric luminosity, in most cases powered by embedded OB stellar clusters

    Stretching the IR theoretical spectrum on Irish neutrality: a critical social constructivist framework

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    In a 2006 International Political Science Review article, entitled "Choosing to Go It Alone: Irish Neutrality in Theoretical and Comparative Perspective," Neal G. Jesse argues that Irish neutrality is best understood through a neoliberal rather than a neorealist international relations theory framework. This article posits an alternative "critical social constructivist" framework for understanding Irish neutrality. The first part of the article considers the differences between neoliberalism and social constructivism and argues why critical social constructivism's emphasis on beliefs, identity, and the agency of the public in foreign policy are key factors explaining Irish neutrality today. Using public opinion data, the second part of the article tests whether national identity, independence, ethnocentrism, attitudes to Northern Ireland, and efficacy are factors driving public support for Irish neutrality. The results show that public attitudes to Irish neutrality are structured along the dimensions of independence and identity, indicating empirical support for a critical social constructivist framework of understanding of Irish neutrality

    Observing the Evolution of the Universe

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    How did the universe evolve? The fine angular scale (l>1000) temperature and polarization anisotropies in the CMB are a Rosetta stone for understanding the evolution of the universe. Through detailed measurements one may address everything from the physics of the birth of the universe to the history of star formation and the process by which galaxies formed. One may in addition track the evolution of the dark energy and discover the net neutrino mass. We are at the dawn of a new era in which hundreds of square degrees of sky can be mapped with arcminute resolution and sensitivities measured in microKelvin. Acquiring these data requires the use of special purpose telescopes such as the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), located in Chile, and the South Pole Telescope (SPT). These new telescopes are outfitted with a new generation of custom mm-wave kilo-pixel arrays. Additional instruments are in the planning stages.Comment: Science White Paper submitted to the US Astro2010 Decadal Survey. Full list of 177 author available at http://cmbpol.uchicago.ed

    Effects of antiplatelet therapy on stroke risk by brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases: subgroup analyses of the RESTART randomised, open-label trial

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    Background Findings from the RESTART trial suggest that starting antiplatelet therapy might reduce the risk of recurrent symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage compared with avoiding antiplatelet therapy. Brain imaging features of intracerebral haemorrhage and cerebral small vessel diseases (such as cerebral microbleeds) are associated with greater risks of recurrent intracerebral haemorrhage. We did subgroup analyses of the RESTART trial to explore whether these brain imaging features modify the effects of antiplatelet therapy

    Genome-wide association analysis implicates dysregulation of immunity genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

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    Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 √ó 10‚ąí13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 √ó 10‚ąí10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 √ó 10‚ąí10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 √ó 10‚ąí8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 √ó 10‚ąí8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 √ó 10‚ąí11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 √ó 10‚ąí8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 √ó 10‚ąí8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 √ó 10‚ąí9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response
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