1,859 research outputs found

    New multi-channel electron energy analyzer with cylindrically symmetrical electrostatic field

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    This paper discusses an electron energy analyzer with a cylindrically symmetrical electrostatic field, designed for rapid Auger analysis. The device was designed and built. The best parameters of the analyzer were estimated and then experimentally verified.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: examining the relationships with socioeconomic position, health behaviours and cardiovascular risk

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    Recent research suggests that diet quality influences depression risk; however, a lack of experimental evidence leaves open the possibility that residual confounding explains the observed relationships. The aim of this study was to document the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between dietary patterns and symptoms of depression and to undertake a detailed examination of potential explanatory factors, particularly socioeconomic circumstances, in the diet-depression relationship

    No arbitrage and closure results for trading cones with transaction costs

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    In this paper, we consider trading with proportional transaction costs as in Schachermayer’s paper (Schachermayer in Math. Finance 14:19–48, 2004). We give a necessary and sufficient condition for A{\mathcal{A}} , the cone of claims attainable from zero endowment, to be closed. Then we show how to define a revised set of trading prices in such a way that, firstly, the corresponding cone of claims attainable for zero endowment, A~{\tilde{ {\mathcal{A}}}} , does obey the fundamental theorem of asset pricing and, secondly, if A~{\tilde{ {\mathcal{A}}}} is arbitrage-free then it is the closure of A{\mathcal{A}} . We then conclude by showing how to represent claims

    A randomised, controlled trial of a dietary intervention for adults with major depression (the "SMILES" trial): study protocol

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    Despite increased investment in its recognition and treatment, depression remains a substantial health and economic burden worldwide. Current treatment strategies generally focus on biological and psychological pathways, largely neglecting the role of lifestyle. There is emerging evidence to suggest that diet and nutrition play an important role in the risk, and the genesis, of depression. However, there are limited data regarding the therapeutic impact of dietary changes on existing mental illness. Using a randomised controlled trial design, we aim to investigate the efficacy and cost-efficacy of a dietary program for the treatment of Major Depressive Episodes. <br /

    Dietary Patterns are Differentially Associated with Atypical and Melancholic Subtypes of Depression.

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    Diet has been associated with the risk of depression, whereas different subtypes of depression have been linked with different cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). In this study, our aims were to 1) identify dietary patterns with exploratory factor analysis, 2) assess cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and depression subtypes, and 3) examine the potentially mediating effect of dietary patterns in the associations between CVRFs and depression subtypes. In the first follow-up of the population-based CoLaus|PsyCoLaus study (2009-2013, 3554 participants, 45.6% men, mean age 57.5 years), a food frequency questionnaire assessed dietary intake and a semi-structured interview allowed to characterize major depressive disorder into current or remitted atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Mediterranean, and Sweet-Dairy. Western diet was positively associated with current atypical depression, but negatively associated with current and remitted melancholic depression. Sweet-Dairy was positively associated with current melancholic depression. However, these dietary patterns did not mediate the associations between CVRFs and depression subtypes. Hence, although we could show that people with different subtypes of depression make different choices regarding their diet, it is unlikely that these differential dietary choices account for the well-established associations between depression subtypes and CVRFs

    Moving towards a population health approach to the primary prevention of common mental disorders

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    There is a need for the development of effective universal preventive approaches to the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety, at a population level. Poor diet, physical inactivity and smoking have long been recognized as key contributors to the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases. However, there are now an increasing number of studies suggesting that the same modifiable lifestyle behaviors are also risk factors for common mental disorders. In this paper we point to the emerging data regarding lifestyle risk factors for common mental disorders, with a particular focus on and critique of the newest evidence regarding diet quality. On the basis of this most recent evidence, we consequently argue for the inclusion of depression and anxiety in the ranks of the high prevalence noncommunicable diseases influenced by habitual lifestyle practices. We believe that it is both feasible and timely to begin to develop effective, sustainable, population-level prevention initiatives for the common mental illnesses that build on the established and developing approaches to the noncommunicable somatic diseases.<br /

    Complementary medicine, exercise, meditation, diet, and lifestyle modification for anxiety disorders : a review of current evidence

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    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity and exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our review found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific anxiety disorders, CAM evidence revealed support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the management of anxiety disorders

    Complementary medicine, exercise, meditation, diet, and lifestyle modification for anxiety disorders : a review of current evidence

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    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity and exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our review found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific anxiety disorders, CAM evidence revealed support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the management of anxiety disorders

    Complementary Medicine, Exercise, Meditation, Diet, and Lifestyle Modification for Anxiety Disorders: A Review of Current Evidence

    Get PDF
    Use of complementary medicines and therapies (CAM) and modification of lifestyle factors such as physical activity, exercise, and diet are being increasingly considered as potential therapeutic options for anxiety disorders. The objective of this metareview was to examine evidence across a broad range of CAM and lifestyle interventions in the treatment of anxiety disorders. In early 2012 we conducted a literature search of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library, for key studies, systematic reviews, and metaanalyses in the area. Our paper found that in respect to treatment of generalized anxiety or specific disorders, CAM evidence revealed current support for the herbal medicine Kava. One isolated study shows benefit for naturopathic medicine, whereas acupuncture, yoga, and Tai chi have tentative supportive evidence, which is hampered by overall poor methodology. The breadth of evidence does not support homeopathy for treating anxiety. Strong support exists for lifestyle modifications including adoption of moderate exercise and mindfulness meditation, whereas dietary improvement, avoidance of caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine offer encouraging preliminary data. In conclusion, certain lifestyle modifications and some CAMs may provide a beneficial role in the treatment of anxiety disorders

    Robust pricing and hedging of double no-touch options

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    Double no-touch options, contracts which pay out a fixed amount provided an underlying asset remains within a given interval, are commonly traded, particularly in FX markets. In this work, we establish model-free bounds on the price of these options based on the prices of more liquidly traded options (call and digital call options). Key steps are the construction of super- and sub-hedging strategies to establish the bounds, and the use of Skorokhod embedding techniques to show the bounds are the best possible. In addition to establishing rigorous bounds, we consider carefully what is meant by arbitrage in settings where there is no {\it a priori} known probability measure. We discuss two natural extensions of the notion of arbitrage, weak arbitrage and weak free lunch with vanishing risk, which are needed to establish equivalence between the lack of arbitrage and the existence of a market model.Comment: 32 pages, 5 figure
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