68 research outputs found

    Structural basis for recruitment of the CHK1 DNA damage kinase by the CLASPIN scaffold protein

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    CHK1 is a protein kinase that functions downstream of activated ATR to phosphorylate multiple targets as part of intra-S and G2/M DNA damage checkpoints. Its role in allowing cells to survive replicative stress has made it an important target for anti-cancer drug discovery. Activation of CHK1 by ATR depends on their mutual interaction with CLASPIN, a natively unstructured protein that interacts with CHK1 through a cluster of phosphorylation sites in its C-terminal half. We have now determined the crystal structure of the kinase domain of CHK1 bound to a high-affinity motif from CLASPIN. Our data show that CLASPIN engages a conserved site on CHK1 adjacent to the substrate-binding cleft, involved in phosphate sensing in other kinases. The CLASPIN motif is not phosphorylated by CHK1, nor does it affect phosphorylation of a CDC25 substrate peptide, suggesting that it functions purely as a scaffold for CHK1 activation by ATR

    Active Trachoma Cases in the Solomon Islands Have Varied Polymicrobial Community Structures but Do Not Associate with Individual Non-Chlamydial Pathogens of the Eye.

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    BACKGROUND: Several non-chlamydial microbial pathogens are associated with clinical signs of active trachoma in trachoma-endemic communities with a low prevalence of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection. In the Solomon Islands, the prevalence of Ct among children is low despite the prevalence of active trachoma being moderate. Therefore, we set out to investigate whether active trachoma was associated with a common non-chlamydial infection or with a dominant polymicrobial community dysbiosis in the Solomon Islands. METHODS: We studied DNA from conjunctival swabs collected from 257 Solomon Islanders with active trachoma and matched controls. Droplet digital PCR was used to test for pathogens suspected to be able to induce follicular conjunctivitis. Polymicrobial community diversity and composition were studied by sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene in a subset of 54 cases and 53 controls. RESULTS: Although Ct was associated with active trachoma, the number of infections was low (cases, 3.9%; controls, 0.4%). Estimated prevalence (cases and controls, respectively) of each non-chlamydial infection was as follows: Staphylococcus aureus: 1.9 and 1.9%, Adenoviridae: 1.2 and 1.2%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus: 5.8 and 4.3%, Haemophilus influenzae: 7.4 and 11.7%, Moraxella catarrhalis: 2.3 and 4.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae: 7.0 and 6.2%. There was no statistically significant association between the clinical signs of trachoma and the presence or load of any of the non-Ct infections that were assayed. Interindividual variations in the conjunctival microbiome were characterized by differences in the levels of Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, Helicobacter, and Paracoccus, but diversity and relative abundance of these specific genera did not differ significantly between cases and controls. DISCUSSION: It is unlikely that the prevalent trachoma-like follicular conjunctivitis in this region of the Solomon Islands has a dominant bacterial etiology. Before implementing community-wide azithromycin distribution for trachoma, policy makers should consider that clinical signs of trachoma can be observed in the absence of any detectable azithromycin-susceptible organism

    Insights into herpesvirus assembly from the structure of the pUL7:pUL51 complex

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    Funder: Nvidia; FundRef: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100007065Funder: Wellcome Trust; FundRef: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100004440Funder: John Lucas Walker StudentshipFunder: Commonwealth Scholarship Commission; FundRef: http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000867Herpesviruses acquire their membrane envelopes in the cytoplasm of infected cells via a molecular mechanism that remains unclear. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)−1 proteins pUL7 and pUL51 form a complex required for efficient virus envelopment. We show that interaction between homologues of pUL7 and pUL51 is conserved across human herpesviruses, as is their association with trans-Golgi membranes. We characterized the HSV-1 pUL7:pUL51 complex by solution scattering and chemical crosslinking, revealing a 1:2 complex that can form higher-order oligomers in solution, and we solved the crystal structure of the core pUL7:pUL51 heterodimer. While pUL7 adopts a previously-unseen compact fold, the helix-turn-helix conformation of pUL51 resembles the cellular endosomal complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III component CHMP4B and pUL51 forms ESCRT-III–like filaments, suggesting a direct role for pUL51 in promoting membrane scission during virus assembly. Our results provide a structural framework for understanding the role of the conserved pUL7:pUL51 complex in herpesvirus assembly

    ABHD11 maintains 2-oxoglutarate metabolism by preserving functional lipoylation of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex

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    Abstract: 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG or α-ketoglutarate) relates mitochondrial metabolism to cell function by modulating the activity of 2-OG dependent dioxygenases involved in the hypoxia response and DNA/histone modifications. However, metabolic pathways that regulate these oxygen and 2-OG sensitive enzymes remain poorly understood. Here, using CRISPR Cas9 genome-wide mutagenesis to screen for genetic determinants of 2-OG levels, we uncover a redox sensitive mitochondrial lipoylation pathway, dependent on the mitochondrial hydrolase ABHD11, that signals changes in mitochondrial 2-OG metabolism to 2-OG dependent dioxygenase function. ABHD11 loss or inhibition drives a rapid increase in 2-OG levels by impairing lipoylation of the 2-OG dehydrogenase complex (OGDHc)—the rate limiting step for mitochondrial 2-OG metabolism. Rather than facilitating lipoate conjugation, ABHD11 associates with the OGDHc and maintains catalytic activity of lipoyl domain by preventing the formation of lipoyl adducts, highlighting ABHD11 as a regulator of functional lipoylation and 2-OG metabolism

    Human cytomegalovirus protein RL1 degrades the antiviral factor SLFN11 via recruitment of the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.

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    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an important human pathogen and a paradigm of viral immune evasion, targeting intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. We have employed two orthogonal multiplexed tandem mass tag-based proteomic screens to identify host proteins down-regulated by viral factors expressed during the latest phases of viral infection. This approach revealed that the HIV-1 restriction factor Schlafen-11 (SLFN11) was degraded by the poorly characterized, late-expressed HCMV protein RL1, via recruitment of the Cullin4-RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase (CRL4) complex. SLFN11 potently restricted HCMV infection, inhibiting the formation and spread of viral plaques. Overall, we show that a restriction factor previously thought only to inhibit RNA viruses additionally restricts HCMV. We define the mechanism of viral antagonism and also describe an important resource for revealing additional molecules of importance in antiviral innate immunity and viral immune evasion

    The Secret to Successful User Communities: An Analysis of Computer Associates’ User Groups

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    This paper provides the first large scale study that examines the impact of both individual- and group-specific factors on the benefits users obtain from their user communities. By empirically analysing 924 survey responses from individuals in 161 Computer Associates' user groups, this paper aims to identify the determinants of successful user communities. To measure success, the amount of time individual members save through having access to their user networks is used. As firms can significantly profit from successful user communities, this study proposes four key implications of the empirical results for the management of user communities

    Severity dependent distribution of impairments in PSP and CBS: Interactive visualizations

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    BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) -Richardson's Syndrome and Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) are the two classic clinical syndromes associated with underlying four repeat (4R) tau pathology. The PSP Rating Scale is a commonly used assessment in PSP clinical trials; there is an increasing interest in designing combined 4R tauopathy clinical trials involving both CBS and PSP. OBJECTIVES: To determine contributions of each domain of the PSP Rating Scale to overall severity and characterize the probable sequence of clinical progression of PSP as compared to CBS. METHODS: Multicenter clinical trial and natural history study data were analyzed from 545 patients with PSP and 49 with CBS. Proportional odds models were applied to model normalized cross-sectional PSP Rating Scale, estimating the probability that a patient would experience impairment in each domain using the PSP Rating Scale total score as the index of overall disease severity. RESULTS: The earliest symptom domain to demonstrate impairment in PSP patients was most likely to be Ocular Motor, followed jointly by Gait/Midline and Daily Activities, then Limb Motor and Mentation, and finally Bulbar. For CBS, Limb Motor manifested first and ocular showed less probability of impairment throughout the disease spectrum. An online tool to visualize predicted disease progression was developed to predict relative disability on each subscale per overall disease severity. CONCLUSION: The PSP Rating Scale captures disease severity in both PSP and CBS. Modelling how domains change in relation to one other at varying disease severities may facilitate detection of therapeutic effects in future clinical trials

    20-Year Risks of Breast-Cancer Recurrence after Stopping Endocrine Therapy at 5 Years

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    The administration of endocrine therapy for 5 years substantially reduces recurrence rates during and after treatment in women with early-stage, estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Extending such therapy beyond 5 years offers further protection but has additional side effects. Obtaining data on the absolute risk of subsequent distant recurrence if therapy stops at 5 years could help determine whether to extend treatment
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