1,345 research outputs found

    Two-year follow-up of the patients included in the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia

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    Over 90% of the 1202 patients investigated in the 9 centres collaborating in the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia were traced 2 years after the initial examination and on the average over 75% of them were re-examined, using standardized instruments and methods. Results indicate that patients diagnosed as schizophrenic on the basis of standardized assessments and clearly specified diagnostic criteria demonstrated very marked variations of course and outcome over a 2-year period. Schizophrenic patients in the centres in developing countries had considerably better course and outcome than schizophrenic patients in the centres in developed countrie

    Schizophrenia succeeded by affective illness: catamnestic study and statistical enquiry

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    On the basis of data derived from a long-term follow-up of 12 cases and a 2-year follow-up of the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia it is suggested that some patients with remitting schizophrenic illnesses can subsequently present clear-cut affective disorders. The implications of these findings are discusse

    The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: five-year follow-up findings

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    A five-year follow-up of the patients initially included in the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia was conducted in eight of the nine centres. Adequate information was obtained for 807 patients, representing 76% of the initial cohort. Clinical and social outcomes were significantly better for patients in Agra and Ibadan than for those in the centres in developed countries. In Cali, only social outcome was significantly bette

    Living with mental illness: quality or continuity of life

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    Symptom profiles of psychiatric disorders based on graded disease classes: an illustration using data from the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia

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    The Grade of Membership (GoM) model is a classification procedure which allows a person to be a member of more than one diagnostic class. It simultaneously quantifies the degrees of membership in classes while generating the discrete symptom profiles or ‘pure types' describing classes. The model was applied to the symptomatology, history, and follow-up of 1065 cases in the WHO International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia. The model produced an eight diagnostic class or ‘pure type' solution, of which five were related to the diagnostic concepts of schizophrenia and paranoid disorder, two types were affective disorders, and one asymptomatic type. A subtype of paranoid schizophreniform disorder found primarily in developing countries was identified. There was a strong association between pure types and the original clinical and computer generated (CATEGO) diagnoses. A GoM based psychiatric classification might more clearly identify core disease processes than conventional classification models by filtering the confounding effects of individual heterogeneity from pure type definition

    The Sertindole Safety Survey: A retrospective analysis under a named patient use programme in Europe

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>After sertindole's suspension, health authorities established a specific named-patient use (NPU) programme in order to supply sertindole to patients who did not respond to or did not tolerate alternative treatments. This programme provided the possibility of prospectively following an exhaustive cohort of patients treated with sertindole after its suspension. A survey was performed to assess sertindole's modalities of prescription, assess and document any serious adverse events (SAEs), and assess the mortality rate within the NPU cohort.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The study comprised a survey of sertindole-treated patients in eleven European countries. All patients treated with sertindole within the NPU programme were eligible for the study.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>1,432 patients were included in the study. The reason for sertindole prescription was lack of efficacy (approximately 50%) or adverse events (approximately 20%) of other antipsychotic treatments. The mean sertindole dose was 13.4 mg daily. Lack of efficacy and adverse events were reported as reasons for sertindole discontinuation.</p> <p>A total of 97 SAEs were recorded, including ten fatal outcomes, which occurred during the study period or within thirty days after sertindole discontinuation. The all-cause mortality rate was 0.51 per 100 Person-Years of Exposure (95% Poisson confidence interval: 0.23–0.97). QTc prolongation was reported in 15 patients (1.05% of total patients), being a rate of 0.85 per 100 Person-Years of Exposure [95% CI: 0.48–1.41].</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Although prescribing and supplying sertindole were subject to administrative constraints, a significant number of patients were treated with sertindole, thus supporting the need for sertindole in specific cases.</p> <p>Trial registration number</p> <p>Not applicable.</p

    The Global Prevalence of Schizophrenia

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    Bhugra discusses the implications of a new study in PLoS Medicine that challenges widely held assumptions about the epidemiology of schizophrenia

    Psychotropic Medication and Substance Use during Pregnancy by Women with Severe Mental Illness.

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    Background: Sociodemographic factors, alcohol and drug intake, and maternal health are known to be associated with adverse outcomes in pregnancy for women with severe mental illness in addition to their use of psychotropic medication. In this study, we describe the demographic characteristics of women hospitalized for severe mental illness along with their use of medication and other drugs during the pregnancy period. Methods: A clinical case note review of women with psychosis who were hospitalized at the State Psychiatric Hospital in Western Australia during 1966-1996, gave birth between 1980 and 1992, and received psychiatric treatment during the pregnancy period. The mother's clinical information was available from the case notes and the midwives record. The demographic characteristics of the mothers were described together with their hospitalization pattern and their medication and substance use during the pregnancy period. Results: A total of 428 mothers with a history of severe mental illness were identified who gave birth during 1980-1992. Of these, 164 mothers received psychiatric care during the pregnancy period. One hundred thirty-two had taken psychotropic medication during this period. Mothers who were married, of aboriginal status or living in regional and remote areas appeared less likely to be hospitalized during the pregnancy period, while older mothers and those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were more likely to be hospitalized. The number of mothers taking psychotropic medication in the first trimester of pregnancy was reduced compared to the previous 6?months. The decline in the number taking substances over the same period was not significant. In all, 16% of the women attempted suicide during the pregnancy period and 10% non-suicidal self-injury. Conclusion: The women demonstrate a pattern of decreased use of psychotropic medication use from the period before pregnancy to the first trimester of pregnancy. Our data highlight the importance of women with severe mental illness receiving regular ongoing monitoring and support from their psychiatrist during pregnancy regarding the level of medication required as well as counseling with regard to substance use, non-suicidal self-injury, and attempted suicide
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