10,246 research outputs found

    Scale-free networks from self-organization.

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    Three-Dimensional High-Resolution Urban Thermal & Mechanical Large Eddy Simulation Interactive Physics Between Buildings, Land Cover And Trees

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    This paper describes the development of a 3D model of the non-domestic building stock of England and Wales. The model’s purpose is to assess energy use in the stock, and study conservation options. Previous stock models have used data on floor area by activities, and have not represented building geometry. The present model by contrast combines digital maps and property taxation data to build a 3D representation in which separate premises are located within buildings, with floor areas on each level. Sub-activities per floor are also represented in 2D. A case study of the London Borough of Camden is presented

    On the interplay between sedimentation and phase separation phenomena in two-dimensional colloidal fluids

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    Colloidal particles that are confined to an interface effectively form a two-dimensional fluid. We examine the dynamics of such colloids when they are subject to a constant external force, which drives them in a particular direction over the surface. Such a situation occurs, for example, for colloidal particles that have settled to the bottom of their container, when the container is tilted at an angle, so that they `sediment' to the lower edge of the surface. We focus in particular on the case when there are attractive forces between the colloids which causes them to phase separate into regions of high density and low density and we study the influence of this phase separation on the sedimentation process. We model the colloids as Brownian particles and use both Brownian dynamics computer simulations and dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) to obtain the time evolution of the ensemble average one-body density profiles of the colloids. We consider situations where the external potential varies only in one direction so that the ensemble average density profiles vary only in this direction. We solve the DDFT in one-dimension, by assuming that the density profile only varies in one direction. However, we also solve the DDFT in two-dimensions, allowing the fluid density profile to vary in both the xx- and yy-directions. We find that in certain situations the two-dimensional DDFT is clearly superior to its one-dimensional counterpart when compared with the simulations and we discuss this issue.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, submitted to Molecular Physic

    The expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits reflects levels of dietary stress in guppies

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    Environmental and ecological conditions can shape the evolution of life history traits in many animals. Among such factors, food or nutrition availability can play an important evolutionary role in moderating an animal\u27s life history traits, particularly sexually selected traits. Here, we test whether diet quantity and/or composition in the form of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (here termed \u27n3LC\u27) influence the expression of pre- and postcopulatory traits in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a livebearing poeciliid fish. We assigned males haphazardly to one of two experimental diets supplemented with n3LC, and each of these diet treatments was further divided into two diet \u27quantity\u27 treatments. Our experimental design therefore explored the main and interacting effects of two factors (n3LC content and diet quantity) on the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation, including the size, number and spectral properties of colour spots) and postcopulatory (the velocity, viability, number and length of sperm) sexually selected traits. Our study revealed that diet quantity had significant effects on most of the pre- and postcopulatory traits, while n3LC manipulation had a significant effect on sperm traits and in particular on sperm viability. Our analyses also revealed interacting effects of diet quantity and n3LC levels on courtship displays, and the area of orange and iridescent colour spots in the males\u27 colour patterns. We also confirmed that our dietary manipulations of n3LC resulted in the differential uptake of n3LC in body and testes tissues in the different n3LC groups. This study reveals the effects of diet quantity and n3LC on behavioural, ornamental and ejaculate traits in P. reticulata and underscores the likely role that diet plays in maintaining the high variability in these condition-dependent sexual traits

    The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): a view from the UK.

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    This is the final version. Available from Dove Medical Press via the DOI in this record.The interest in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) continues to increase as recognition of their potential utility rises in an effort to make health systems more patient-centered. The US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS®) has used state of the art psychometric and statistical techniques to create a universal PROMs language, with potential application across the whole spectrum of health conditions, languages, and geographic locations. PROMIS offers a versatile platform where specific health domains are assessed using both standardized short forms and computerized adaptive tests, which are automatically tailored to individual patients. The scores of each health domain or a standardized profile of multiple domains are all scored on a common metric scale. PROMIS is increasingly recognized as the international gold standard for patient-centered assessment, although the use of these tools in the UK is limited. In this review, the developmental methodology of the PROMIS is described with discussion of its relevant strengths and limitations for use in the UK. We provide a case study of the largest application of the PROMIS tools in the UK as an example of straightforward integration into health-care research. Barriers to the uptake of PROMIS in the UK include the technology requirement, measurement tradition, and lack of a clear understanding of its benefits, and although potential stakeholders should cautiously consider its use, its impressive potential and increasing international utilization should be recognized

    Influence of spark plasma sintering parameters on magnetic properties of FeCo alloy

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    Equiatomic FeCo alloys with average particle size of 24 μm were sintered using spark plasma sintering (SPS) system at sintering temperatures of 1100, 800, and 850 °C for heating rates 50, 100, 300 °C/min by applying pressure of 50 MPa instantly at room temperature for sintering time of 5 and 15 minutes. The highest saturation induction was achieved at SPS conditions of 50 MPa, 50 °C/min, 1100 °C, without dwelling, of value 2.39 T. The saturation induction was improved with extending sintering time, the coercivity was higher in samples sintered at a fast heating rate in comparison to the slowest heating rate

    Physical profiles of elite male field hockey and soccer players - application to sport-specific tests

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    Background. The physical demands of field hockey and soccer, based on match analysis, are comparable. As a consequence many exercise scientists and coaches have started to use the same type of field tests for hockey and soccer for the purposes of talent identification and training prescription. The validity of this practice is unknown and the data supporting the similarity of the physical attributes of soccer and hockey players are lacking. Objectives. To compare the physical attributes of elite South African hockey and soccer players. Methods. Elite hockey players (N=39: 22±3 years; mean ± standard deviation) and soccer players (N=37; 24±4 years) completed a set of physical tests including a 10 m and 40 m sprint test, a repeated sprint test (sprint fatigue resistance), a 1RM bench press and a push-up test. Results. There were no differences in the 10 m (1.8±0.1 s both groups) and 40 m (5.4±0.2 s v. 5.3±0.2 s; hockey v. soccer) sprint times and distance run in the repeated sprint test (754±14 m v. 734±51 m). The hockey players were stronger (82±16 v. 65±13 kg) and did more push-ups (49±12 v. 38±10 push-ups) than the soccer players. Conclusions. It is acceptable to use the same type of sport-specific tests to measure sprint capacity and sprint fatigue resistance for hockey and soccer players. However, it is questionable whether the normative data derived for upper body strength for soccer players are relevant for hockey players, and vice versa. South African Journal of Sports Medicine Vol. 19 (3) 2007: pp. 74-7

    Stimulating the innovation potential of 'routine' workers through workplace learning

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    Governments worldwide seek to upgrade the ‘basic skills' of employees deemed to have low literacy and numeracy, in order to enable their greater productivity and participation in workplace practices. A longitudinal investigation of such interventions in the United Kingdom has examined the effects on employees and on organizations of engaging in basic skills programmes offered in and through the workplace. ‘Tracking’ of employees in selected organizational contexts has highlighted ways in which interplay between formal and informal workplace learning can help to create the environments for employees in lower grade jobs to use and expand their skills. This workplace learning is a precondition, a stimulus and an essential ingredient for participation in employee-driven innovation, as workers engage with others to vary, and eventually to change, work practices. © 2010, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved
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