5,847 research outputs found

    C1 metabolism and CVD outcomes in older adults

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    Riboflavin status, MTHFR genotype and blood pressure: current evidence and implications for personalised nutrition

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    Clinical deficiency of the B-vitamin riboflavin (vitamin B2) is largely confined to developing countries; however accumulating evidence indicates that suboptimal riboflavin status is a widespread problem across the developed world. Few international data are available on riboflavin status as measured by the functional biomarker, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient, considered to be the gold standard index. One important role of riboflavin in the form of flavin dinucleotide is as a co-factor for the folate-metabolising enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Homozygosity for the common C677T polymorphism in MTHFR, affecting over 10 % of the UK and Irish populations and up to 32 % of other populations worldwide, has been associated with an increased risk of CVD, and more recently with hypertension. This review will explore available studies reporting riboflavin status worldwide, the interaction of riboflavin with theMTHFRC677T polymorphism and the potential role of riboflavin in personalised nutrition. Evidence is accumulating for a novel role of riboflavin as an important modulator of blood pressure (BP) specifically in individuals with theMTHFR677TT genotype, with results from a number of recent randomised controlled trials demonstrating that riboflavin supplementation can significantly reduce systolic BP by 5–13 mmHg in these genetically at risk adults. Studies are however required to investigate the BP-lowering effect of riboflavin in different populations and in response to doses higher than 1·6 mg/d. Furthermore, work focusing on the translation of this research to health professionals and patients is also required.</jats:p

    B-vitamins, homocysteine metabolism and CVD

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    MTHFR 677TT genotype and disease risk: is there a modulating role for B-vitamins?

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    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical folate-metabolising enzyme which requires riboflavin as its co-factor. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in theMTHFRgene results in reduced MTHFR activityin vivowhich in turn leads to impaired folate metabolism and elevated homocysteine concentrations. Homozygosity for this polymorphism (TT genotype) is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including heart disease and stroke, but there is considerable variability in the extent of excess risk in various reports. The present review will explore the evidence which supports a role for this polymorphism as a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes, and the potential modulating roles for B-vitamins in alleviating disease risk. The evidence is convincing in the case which links this polymorphism with hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia. Furthermore, elevated blood pressure was found to be highly responsive to riboflavin intervention specifically in individuals with theMTHFR677TT genotype. Future intervention studies targeted at these genetically predisposed individuals are required to further investigate this novel gene–nutrient interaction. This polymorphism has also been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the evidence in this area has been inconsistent. Preliminary evidence has suggested that there may be a much greater need for women with theMTHFR677TT genotype to adhere to the specific recommendation of commencing folic acid prior to conception for the prevention of NTD, but this requires further investigation.</jats:p

    Novel Approaches to Investigate One-Carbon Metabolism and Related B-Vitamins in Blood Pressure.

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    Hypertension, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke, is the world's leading cause of preventable, premature death. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in the gene encoding the folate metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is associated with increased blood pressure, and there is accumulating evidence demonstrating that this phenotype can be modulated, specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype, by the B-vitamin riboflavin, an essential co-factor for MTHFR. The underlying mechanism that links this polymorphism, and the related gene-nutrient interaction, with hypertension is currently unknown. Previous research has shown that 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the product of the reaction catalysed by MTHFR, appears to be a positive allosteric modulator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and may thus increase the production of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator. Blood pressure follows a circadian pattern, peaking shortly after wakening and falling during the night, a phenomenon known as 'dipping'. Any deviation from this pattern, which can only be identified using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This review will consider the evidence linking this polymorphism and novel gene-nutrient interaction with hypertension and the potential mechanisms that might be involved. The role of ABPM in B-vitamin research and in nutrition research generally will also be reviewed.The PhD studentship of A.M. was funded by the Northern Ireland Department for Employment and Learning. DSM Nutritional Products Ltd. partly supported project costs associated with this work. The funders had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this paper

    Sending Your Grandparents to University Increases Cognitive Reserve: The Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project.

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    Increasing an individual’s level of cognitive reserve (CR) has been suggested as a nonpharmacological approach to reducing the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined changes in CR in older adults participating over 4 years in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project. Method: A sample of 459 healthy older adults between 50 and 79 years of age underwent a comprehensive annual assessment of current CR, neuropsychological function, and psychosocial factors over a 4-year period. The intervention group of 359 older adults (M � 59.61 years, SD � 6.67) having completed a minimum of 12 months part-time university study were compared against a control reference group of 100 adults (M � 62.49 years, SD � 6.24) who did not engage in further education. Results: Growth mixture modeling demonstrated that 44.3% of the control sample showed no change in CR, whereas 92.5% of the further education participants displayed a significant linear increase in CR over the 4 years of the study. These results indicate that older adults engaging in high-level mental stimulation display an increase in CR over a 4-year period. Conclusion: Increasing mental activity in older adulthood may be a viable strategy to improve cognitive function and offset cognitive decline associated with normal aging

    PMH2 ESTABLISHING THE EXPECTED RATE OF COGNITIVE DECLINE IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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    PCV33 COST-EFFECTIVENESS MODEL TO EVALUATE MANAGED VENTRICULAR PACING (MVP) IMPLANTED IN A SPANISH AMBULATORY SURGERY PROGRAM

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    Spatiotemporal organisation of human sensorimotor beta burst activity

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    Beta oscillations in human sensorimotor cortex are hallmark signatures of healthy and pathological movement. In single trials, beta oscillations include bursts of intermittent, transient periods of high-power activity. These burst events have been linked to a range of sensory and motor processes, but their precise spatial, spectral, and temporal structure remains unclear. Specifically, a role for beta burst activity in information coding and communication suggests spatiotemporal patterns, or travelling wave activity, along specific anatomical gradients. We here show in human magnetoencephalography recordings that burst activity in sensorimotor cortex occurs in planar spatiotemporal wave-like patterns that dominate along two axes either parallel or perpendicular to the central sulcus. Moreover, we find that the two propagation directions are characterised by distinct anatomical and physiological features. Finally, our results suggest that sensorimotor beta bursts occurring before and after a movement can be distinguished by their anatomical, spectral and spatiotemporal characteristics, indicating distinct functional roles
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