59 research outputs found

    Second Harmonic Generation for a Dilute Suspension of Coated Particles

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    We derive an expression for the effective second-harmonic coefficient of a dilute suspension of coated spherical particles. It is assumed that the coating material, but not the core or the host, has a nonlinear susceptibility for second-harmonic generation (SHG). The resulting compact expression shows the various factors affecting the effective SHG coefficient. The effective SHG per unit volume of nonlinear coating material is found to be greatly enhanced at certain frequencies, corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance of the coated particles. Similar expression is also derived for a dilute suspension of coated discs. For coating materials with third-harmonic (THG) coefficient, results for the effective THG coefficients are given for the cases of coated particles and coated discs.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures; accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Quantum diffusion on a cyclic one dimensional lattice

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    The quantum diffusion of a particle in an initially localized state on a cyclic lattice with N sites is studied. Diffusion and reconstruction time are calculated. Strong differences are found for even or odd number of sites and the limit N->infinit is studied. The predictions of the model could be tested with micro - and nanotechnology devices.Comment: 17 pages, 5 figure

    Dimensional Crossover in the Effective Second Harmonic Generation of Films of Random Dielectrics

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    The effective nonlinear response of films of random composites consisting of a binary composite with nonlinear particles randomly embedded in a linear host is theoretically and numerically studied. A theoretical expression for the effective second harmonic generation susceptibility, incorporating the thickness of the film, is obtained by combining a modified effective-medium approximation with the general expression for the effective second harmonic generation susceptibility in a composite. The validity of the thoretical results is tested against results obtained by numerical simulations on random resistor networks. Numerical results are found to be well described by our theory. The result implies that the effective-medium approximation provides a convenient way for the estimation of the nonlinear response in films of random dielectrics.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figures; accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Comment on "Mean First Passage Time for Anomalous Diffusion"

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    We correct a previously erroneous calculation [Phys. Rev. E 62, 6065 (2000)] of the mean first passage time of a subdiffusive process to reach either end of a finite interval in one dimension. The mean first passage time is in fact infinite.Comment: To appear in Phys. Rev.

    Reaction-controlled diffusion: Monte Carlo simulations

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    We study the coupled two-species non-equilibrium reaction-controlled diffusion model introduced by Trimper et al. [Phys. Rev. E 62, 6071 (2000)] by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations in one and two dimensions. Particles of type A may independently hop to an adjacent lattice site provided it is occupied by at least one B particle. The B particle species undergoes diffusion-limited reactions. In an active state with nonzero, essentially homogeneous B particle saturation density, the A species displays normal diffusion. In an inactive, absorbing phase with exponentially decaying B density, the A particles become localized. In situations with algebraic decay rho_B(t) ~ t^{-alpha_B}, as occuring either at a non-equilibrium continuous phase transition separating active and absorbing states, or in a power-law inactive phase, the A particles propagate subdiffusively with mean-square displacement ~ t^{1-alpha_A}. We find that within the accuracy of our simulation data, \alpha_A = \alpha_B as predicted by a simple mean-field approach. This remains true even in the presence of strong spatio-temporal fluctuations of the B density. However, in contrast with the mean-field results, our data yield a distinctly non-Gaussian A particle displacement distribution n_A(x,t) that obeys dynamic scaling and looks remarkably similar for the different processes investigated here. Fluctuations of effective diffusion rates cause a marked enhancement of n_A(x,t) at low displacements |x|, indicating a considerable fraction of practically localized A particles, as well as at large traversed distances.Comment: Revtex, 19 pages, 27 eps figures include

    Absence of self-averaging in the complex admittance for transport through random media

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    A random walk model in a one dimensional disordered medium with an oscillatory input current is presented as a generic model of boundary perturbation methods to investigate properties of a transport process in a disordered medium. It is rigorously shown that an admittance which is equal to the Fourier-Laplace transform of the first-passage time distribution is non-self-averaging when the disorder is strong. The low frequency behavior of the disorder-averaged admittance, −1∼ωμ -1 \sim \omega^{\mu} where μ<1\mu < 1, does not coincide with the low frequency behavior of the admittance for any sample, χ−1∼ω\chi - 1 \sim \omega. It implies that the Cole-Cole plot of appears at a different position from the Cole-Cole plots of χ\chi of any sample. These results are confirmed by Monte-Carlo simulations.Comment: 7 pages, 2 figures, published in Phys. Rev.

    Anisotropic thermally activated diffusion in percolation systems

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    We present a study of static and frequency-dependent diffusion with anisotropic thermally activated transition rates in a two-dimensional bond percolation system. The approach accounts for temperature effects on diffusion coefficients in disordered anisotropic systems. Static diffusion shows an Arrhenius behavior for low temperatures with an activation energy given by the highest energy barrier of the system. From the frequency-dependent diffusion coefficients we calculate a characteristic frequency ωc∼1/tc\omega_{c}\sim 1/t_{c}, related to the time tct_c needed to overcome a characteristic barrier. We find that ωc\omega_c follows an Arrhenius behavior with different activation energies in each direction.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    MOBILITY IN A ONE-DIMENSIONAL DISORDER POTENTIAL

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    In this article the one-dimensional, overdamped motion of a classical particle is considered, which is coupled to a thermal bath and is drifting in a quenched disorder potential. The mobility of the particle is examined as a function of temperature and driving force acting on the particle. A framework is presented, which reveals the dependence of mobility on spatial correlations of the disorder potential. Mobility is then calculated explicitly for new models of disorder, in particular with spatial correlations. It exhibits interesting dynamical phenomena. Most markedly, the temperature dependence of mobility may deviate qualitatively from Arrhenius formula and a localization transition from zero to finite mobility may occur at finite temperature. Examples show a suppression of this transition by disorder correlations.Comment: 10 pages, latex, with 3 figures, to be published in Z. Phys.

    Reaction-controlled diffusion

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    The dynamics of a coupled two-component nonequilibrium system is examined by means of continuum field theory representing the corresponding master equation. Particles of species A may perform hopping processes only when particles of different type B are present in their environment. Species B is subject to diffusion-limited reactions. If the density of B particles attains a finite asymptotic value (active state), the A species displays normal diffusion. On the other hand, if the B density decays algebraically ~t^{-a} at long times (inactive state), the effective attractive A-B interaction is weakened. The combination of B decay and activated A hopping processes gives rise to anomalous diffusion, with mean-square displacement ~ t^{1-a} for a < 1. Such algebraic subdiffusive behavior ensues for n-th order B annihilation reactions (n B -> 0) with n >=3, and n = 2 for d < 2. The mean-square displacement of the A particles grows only logarithmically with time in the case of B pair annihilation (n = 2) and d >= 2 dimensions. For radioactive B decay (n = 1), the A particles remain localized. If the A particles may hop spontaneously as well, or if additional random forces are present, the A-B coupling becomes irrelevant, and conventional diffusion is recovered in the long-time limit.Comment: 7 pages, revtex, no figures; latest revised versio

    Harmonic generation from metal-oxide and metal-metal boundaries

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    We explore the outcomes of detailed microscopic models by calculating second- and third-harmonic generation from thin-film surfaces with discontinuous free-electron densities. These circumstances can occur in structures consisting of a simple metal mirror, or arrangements composed of either different metals or a metal and a free-electron system like a conducting oxide. Using a hydrodynamic approach we highlight the case of a gold mirror and that of a two-layer system containing indium tin oxide (ITO) and gold. We assume the gold mirror surface is characterized by a free-electron cloud of varying density that spills into the vacuum, which as a result of material dispersion exhibits epsilon-near-zero conditions and local-field enhancement at the surface. For a bilayer consisting of a thin ITO and gold film, if the wave is incident from the ITO side the electromagnetic field is presented with a free-electron discontinuity at the ITO-gold interface, and wavelength-dependent epsilon-near-zero conditions that enhance local fields and conversion efficiencies and determine the surface's emission properties. We evaluate the relative significance of additional nonlinear sources that arise when a free-electron discontinuity is present, and show that harmonic generation can be sensitive to the density of the screening free-electron cloud, and not its thickness. Our findings also suggest the possibility to control surface harmonic generation through surface charge engineering.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft
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