30 research outputs found

    Caloric Curves and Nuclear Expansion

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    Nuclear caloric curves have been analyzed using an expanding Fermi gas hypothesis to extract average nuclear densities. In this approach the observed flattening of the caloric curves reflects progressively increasing expansion with increasing excitation energy. This expansion results in a corresponding decrease in the density and Fermi energy of the excited system. For nuclei of medium to heavy mass apparent densities ~ 0.4 rho_0 are reached at the higher excitation energies.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figure

    Isotopic composition of fragments in multifragmentation of very large nuclear systems: effects of the chemical equilibrium

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    Studies on the isospin of fragments resulting from the disassembly of highly excited large thermal-like nuclear emitting sources, formed in the ^{197}Au + ^{197}Au reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon beam energy, are presented. Two different decay systems (the quasiprojectile formed in midperipheral reactions and the unique source coming from the incomplete fusion of projectile and target in the most central collisions) were considered; these emitting sources have the same initial N/Z ratio and excitation energy (E^* ~= 5--6 MeV/nucleon), but different size. Their charge yields and isotopic content of the fragments show different distributions. It is observed that the neutron content of intermediate mass fragments increases with the size of the source. These evidences are consistent with chemical equilibrium reached in the systems. This fact is confirmed by the analysis with the statistical multifragmentation model.Comment: 9 pages, 4 ps figure

    Thermally-induced expansion in the 8 GeV/c π−\pi^- + 197^{197}Au reaction

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    Fragment kinetic energy spectra for reactions induced by 8.0 GeV/c π−\rm{\pi^-} beams incident on a 197\rm{^{197}}Au target have been analyzed in order to deduce the possible existence and influence of thermal expansion. The average fragment kinetic energies are observed to increase systematically with fragment charge but are nearly independent of excitation energy. Comparison of the data with statistical multifragmentation models indicates the onset of extra collective thermal expansion near an excitation energy of E*/A ≈\rm{\approx} 5 MeV. However, this effect is weak relative to the radial expansion observed in heavy-ion-induced reactions, consistent with the interpretation that the latter expansion may be driven primarily by dynamical effects such as compression/decompression.Comment: 12 pages including 4 postscript figure

    Isospin influences on particle emission and critical phenomenon in nuclear dissociation

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    Features of particle emission and critical point behavior are investigated as functions of the isospin of disassembling sources and temperature at a moderate freeze-out density for medium-size Xe isotopes in the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. Multiplicities of emitted light particles, isotopic and isobaric ratios of light particles show the strong dependence on the isospin of the dissociation source, but double ratios of light isotope pairs and the critical temperature determined by the extreme values of some critical observables are insensitive to the isospin of the systems. Values of the power law parameter of cluster mass distribution, mean multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments (IMFIMF), information entropy (HH) and Campi's second moment (S2S_2) also show a minor dependence on the isospin of Xe isotopes at the critical point. In addition, the slopes of the average multiplicites of the neutrons (NnN_n), protons (NpN_p), charged particles (NCPN_{CP}), and IMFs (NimfN_{imf}), slopes of the largest fragment mass number (AmaxA_{max}), and the excitation energy per nucleon of the disassembling source (E∗/AE^*/A) to temperature are investigated as well as variances of the distributions of NnN_n, NpN_p, NCPN_{CP}, NIMFN_{IMF}, AmaxA_{max} and E∗/AE^*/A. It is found that they can be taken as additional judgements to the critical phenomena.Comment: 9 Pages, 8 figure

    Lambda Hyperons in 2 A*GeV Ni + Cu Collisions

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    A sample of Lambda's produced in 2 A*GeV Ni + Cu collisions has been obtained with the EOS Time Projection Chamber at the Bevalac. Low background in the invariant mass distribution allows for the unambiguous demonstration of Lambda directed flow. The transverse mass spectrum at mid-rapidity has the characteristic shoulder-arm shape of particles undergoing radial transverse expansion. A linear dependence of Lambda multiplicity on impact parameter is observed, from which a total Lambda + Sigma^0 production cross section of $112 +/- 24 mb is deduced. Detailed comparisons with the ARC and RVUU models are made.Comment: Revised version accepted for publication in Phys. Lett.

    Q

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    The Qweak experiment, which took data at Jefferson Lab in the period 2010 - 2012, will precisely determine the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e-p scattering at 1.1 GeV using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a liquid hydrogen target at a low momentum transfer of Q2 = 0.025 (GeV/c)2. The weak charge of the proton is predicted by the Standard Model and any significant deviation would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. The technical challenges and experimental apparatus for measuring the weak charge of the proton will be discussed, as well as the method of extracting the weak charge of the proton. The results from a small subset of the data, that has been published, will also be presented. Furthermore an update will be given of the current status of the data analysis

    A community perspective on managing knowledge in project environments

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    In this work an approach for simulation of a large passenger aircraft with high precision equations of motion and a new method of dynamic loads calculation is presented, which can be used for maneuver and gust loads analysis in the time domain. Equations of motion and equations of structural loads are derived from first principles. The consistent set of equations includes all inertial coupling terms and is tailored for direct integration of finite element models. A dynamic simulation of a large transport aircraft is used to show the influence of inertial coupling terms on simulation and loads computation
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