11,476 research outputs found

    Magnetically controlled plasma accelerator Patent

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    Magnetically controlled plasma accelerator capable of ignition in low density gaseous environmen

    The Measures and the loss - Case Study on non-tariff barriers related to veterinary export certificates in Dutch exports

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    Case study research into the mandatory veterinary requirements on Dutch exports of live animals and animal products provides empirical evidence on the trade effects of nontariff measures (NTMs). The paper discusses the analytical approach to assess how veterinary health attestation may create (temporary) obstacles for Dutch exports, what these obstacles are, and whether competing exporters in EU countries have encountered similar barriers. We have a dataset on 166 cases in 2004-06 where the process of issuing veterinary certificates for Dutch exports to non- EU destinations was disrupted. Products covered are animal-based products, live animals and feed. We use a sample of 30 cases that continued after 2006, the ‘longlasting problems’, and 39 cases that came up and got solved between 2004 and 2006, the temporary problems. The main challenge is to link the available record of recognition problems to the disruptions in exports. In order to assess trade disruptions, statistical tests of outliers and trend breaches are performed on detailed monthly trade data, and the issue of not-observed trade needs to be addressed. This raises the need to address disruption patterns around the imposition of measures in trade. The alternative patterns under examination are (i) measures that have an immediate trade impact, (ii) measures due to which trade gradually expands or reduces, and (iii) measures that divert trade to alternative export destinations. Finally, we want to examine whether the impact of veterinary health attestation on trade can be specified towards the type of trade barrier. For that, we suggest to introduce a distinction between three different types of barriers, based on whether obstacles relate to the non-conformity of products to import requirements or a failure in the conformity assessment or both.non-tariff measures, conformity assessment, animal products, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries,

    Editorial

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    Letter from the Editors

    Product differentiation under the WTO; An analysis of labelling and tariff or tax measures concerning farm animal welfare

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    This report examines the possibility of giving preferential treatment to imports of meat products that meet improved standards in terms of animal welfare in production. Three specific forms of preferential treatment are considered here as possible measures for increasing levels of animal welfare in meat production in the EU and its exporting partners: labelling of products (either voluntary or compulsory), differentiated import tariffs and differentiated consumer taxes. The likely admissibility of such measures under WTO rules is assessed by means of an analysis of previous decisions by WTO dispute settlement panels. It is concluded that all of the measures analysed have a possibility of being upheld, based on a defence relying on Article XX of the GATT and perhaps also the TBT Agreement. While the incentives offered by labelling could be reinforced with differentiated tariffs or taxes, these financial instruments involve various additional complications. They could best be considered after the possibilities of regulated labelling schemes have been exhausted.International Relations/Trade,

    DSIF station schedules

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    System manages Deep Space Instrumentation Facilities /DSIF/ equipment construction and modification planning. Versatile program applies to such tasks as employee time and task schedules, pay schedules, operations schedules, and plant and equipment procurement, construction, modification or service

    Drug consumption in London: a city of diverse and changing scenes

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    [Summary of the book containing this chapter:] Two Worlds of Drug Consumption in Late Modern Societies reports the findings of an empirical study of drug users in London, Amsterdam, Turin, Prague, Vienna and Warsaw, European cities representative of a wide range of drug problems and public policies. The innovative study reconceives the standard distinctions between 'hard-core' and 'recreational' drug users in terms of their social position. The authors argue that this is closely related to consumption patterns rather than drug choice, and reveals that two relatively homogenous drug worlds exist within each of the study sites. This leads to the development of diverging drug markets; a friendly market for the integrated consumer, and a highly commercialized one for the marginalized customer, where low quality goods are sold at a higher price. These findings have significant implications for academics and professionals working in health, psychology and urban studies

    Minimising biases in Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo

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    We show that Full Configuration Interaction Quantum Monte Carlo (FCIQMC) is a Markov Chain in its present form. We construct the Markov matrix of FCIQMC for a two determinant system and hence compute the stationary distribution. These solutions are used to quantify the dependence of the population dynamics on the parameters defining the Markov chain. Despite the simplicity of a system with only two determinants, it still reveals a population control bias inherent to the FCIQMC algorithm. We investigate the effect of simulation parameters on the population control bias for the neon atom and suggest simulation setups to in general minimise the bias. We show a reweighting scheme to remove the bias caused by population control commonly used in Diffusion Monte Carlo [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 2865 (1993)] is effective and recommend its use as a post processing step.Comment: Supplementary material available as 'Ancillary Files
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