3,832 research outputs found

    Sonoluminescence: Bogolubov coefficients for the QED vacuum of a time-dependent dielectric bubble

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    We extend Schwinger's ideas regarding sonoluminescence by explicitly calculating the Bogolubov coefficients relating the QED vacuum states associated with changes in a dielectric bubble. Sudden (non-adiabatic) changes in the refractive index lead to an efficient production of real photons with a broadband spectrum, and a high-frequency cutoff that arises from the asymptotic behaviour of the dielectric constant.Comment: 4 pages, RevTeX, 2 figures (.eps file) included with graphics.sty. Major revisions: physical scenario clarified, additional numerical estimate

    Relativistic, Causal Description of Quantum Entanglement and Gravity

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    A possible solution to the problem of providing a spacetime description of the transmission of signals for quantum entangled states is obtained by using a bimetric spacetime structure, in which quantum entanglement measurements alter the structure of the classical relativity spacetime. A bimetric gravity theory locally has two lightcones, one which describes classical special relativity and a larger lightcone which allows light signals to communicate quantum information between entangled states, after a measurement device detects one of the entangled states. The theory would remove the tension that exists between macroscopic classical, local gravity and macroscopic nonlocal quantum mechanics.Comment: 12 pages. LaTex file. 1 figure. Additional text. To be published in Int. J. Mod. Phys.

    Sonoluminescence as a QED vacuum effect. II: Finite Volume Effects

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    In a companion paper [quant-ph/9904013] we have investigated several variations of Schwinger's proposed mechanism for sonoluminescence. We demonstrated that any realistic version of Schwinger's mechanism must depend on extremely rapid (femtosecond) changes in refractive index, and discussed ways in which this might be physically plausible. To keep that discussion tractable, the technical computations in that paper were limited to the case of a homogeneous dielectric medium. In this paper we investigate the additional complications introduced by finite-volume effects. The basic physical scenario remains the same, but we now deal with finite spherical bubbles, and so must decompose the electromagnetic field into Spherical Harmonics and Bessel functions. We demonstrate how to set up the formalism for calculating Bogolubov coefficients in the sudden approximation, and show that we qualitatively retain the results previously obtained using the homogeneous-dielectric (infinite volume) approximation.Comment: 23 pages, LaTeX 209, ReV-TeX 3.2, five figure

    Schwinger's Dynamical Casimir Effect: Bulk Energy Contribution

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    Schwinger's Dynamical Casimir Effect is one of several candidate explanations for sonoluminescence. Recently, several papers have claimed that Schwinger's estimate of the Casimir energy involved is grossly inaccurate. In this letter, we show that these calculations omit the crucial volume term. When the missing term is correctly included one finds full agreement with Schwinger's result for the Dynamical Casimir Effect. We have nothing new to say about sonoluminescence itself except to affirm that the Casimir effect is energetically adequate as a candidate explanation.Comment: 6 pages. Uses LaTeX with RevTeX package in two-column forma

    A modified Schwinger's formula for the Casimir effect

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    After briefly reviewing how the (proper-time) Schwinger's formula works for computing the Casimir energy in the case of "scalar electrodynamics" where the boundary conditions are dictated by two perfectly conducting parallel plates with separation "a" in the Z-axis, we propose a slightly modification in the previous approach based on an analytical continuation method. As we will see, for the case at hand our formula does not need the use of Poisson summation to get a (renormalized) finite result.Comment: 6 pages, DFTUZ/93/14 (a short version will appear in the Letters in Math. Phys.

    Sonoluminescence as a QED vacuum effect: Probing Schwinger's proposal

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    Several years ago Schwinger proposed a physical mechanism for sonoluminescence in terms of photon production due to changes in the properties of the quantum-electrodynamic (QED) vacuum arising from a collapsing dielectric bubble. This mechanism can be re-phrased in terms of the Casimir effect and has recently been the subject of considerable controversy. The present paper probes Schwinger's suggestion in detail: Using the sudden approximation we calculate Bogolubov coefficients relating the QED vacuum in the presence of the expanded bubble to that in the presence of the collapsed bubble. In this way we derive an estimate for the spectrum and total energy emitted. We verify that in the sudden approximation there is an efficient production of photons, and further that the main contribution to this dynamic Casimir effect comes from a volume term, as per Schwinger's original calculation. However, we also demonstrate that the timescales required to implement Schwinger's original suggestion are not physically relevant to sonoluminescence. Although Schwinger was correct in his assertion that changes in the zero-point energy lead to photon production, nevertheless his original model is not appropriate for sonoluminescence. In other works (see quant-ph/9805023, quant-ph/9904013, quant-ph/9904018, quant-ph/9905034) we have developed a variant of Schwinger's model that is compatible with the physically required timescales.Comment: 18 pages, ReV_TeX 3.2, 9 figures. Major revisions: This document is now limited to providing a probe of Schwinger's original suggestion for sonoluminescence. For details on our own variant of Schwinger's ideas see quant-ph/9805023, quant-ph/9904013, quant-ph/9904018, quant-ph/990503

    Can the QCD Effective Charge Be Symmetrical in the Euclidean and the Minkowskian Regions?

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    We study a possible symmetrical behavior of the effective charges defined in the Euclidean and Minkowskian regions and prove that such symmetry is inconsistent with the causality principle.Comment: 5 pages, REVTe

    Schwinger, Pegg and Barnett approaches and a relationship between angular and Cartesian quantum descriptions II: Phase Spaces

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    Following the discussion -- in state space language -- presented in a preceding paper, we work on the passage from the phase space description of a degree of freedom described by a finite number of states (without classical counterpart) to one described by an infinite (and continuously labeled) number of states. With that it is possible to relate an original Schwinger idea to the Pegg and Barnett approach to the phase problem. In phase space language, this discussion shows that one can obtain the Weyl-Wigner formalism, for both Cartesian {\em and} angular coordinates, as limiting elements of the discrete phase space formalism.Comment: Subm. to J. Phys A: Math and Gen. 7 pages, sequel of quant-ph/0108031 (which is to appear on J.Phys A: Math and Gen

    Quantum radiation in external background fields

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    A canonical formalism is presented which allows for investigations of quantum radiation induced by localized, smooth disturbances of classical background fields by means of a perturbation theory approach. For massless, non-selfinteracting quantum fields at zero temperature we demonstrate that the low-energy part of the spectrum of created particles exhibits a non-thermal character. Applied to QED in varying dielectrics the response theory approach facilitates to study two distinct processes contributing to the production of photons: the squeezing effect due to space-time varying properties of the medium and of the velocity effect due to its motion. The generalization of this approach to finite temperatures as well as the relation to sonoluminescence is indicated.Comment: 20 page

    Magnetic Permeability of Constrained Fermionic Vacuum

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    We obtain using Schwinger's proper time approach the Casimir-Euler-Heisenberg effective action of fermion fluctuations for the case of an applied magnetic field. We implement here the compactification of one space dimension into a circle through anti-periodic boundary condition. Aside of higher order non-linear field effects we identify a novel contribution to the vacuum permeability. These contributions are exceedingly small for normal electromagnetism due to the smallness of the electron Compton wavelength compared to the size of the compactified dimension, if we take the latter as the typical size of laboratory cavities, but their presence is thought provoking, also considering the context of strong interactions.Comment: 8 pages, LaTex, 1 postscript figure, Phys. Let. B in press, slight text revisions, references adde
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