352 research outputs found

    Pathwise super-replication via Vovk's outer measure

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    Since Hobson's seminal paper [D. Hobson: Robust hedging of the lookback option. In: Finance Stoch. (1998)] the connection between model-independent pricing and the Skorokhod embedding problem has been a driving force in robust finance. We establish a general pricing-hedging duality for financial derivatives which are susceptible to the Skorokhod approach. Using Vovk's approach to mathematical finance we derive a model-independent super-replication theorem in continuous time, given information on finitely many marginals. Our result covers a broad range of exotic derivatives, including lookback options, discretely monitored Asian options, and options on realized variance.Comment: 18 page

    Molecular characterization of retinal stem cells and their niches in adult zebrafish

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    BACKGROUND: The persistence in adult teleost fish of retinal stem cells that exhibit all of the features of true 'adult stem cells' ÔÇô self-renewal, multipotency, and the capacity to respond to injury by mitotic activation with the ability to regenerate differentiated tissues ÔÇô has been known for several decades. However, the specialized cellular and molecular characteristics of these adult retinal stem cells and the microenvironmental niches that support their maintenance in the differentiated retina and regulate their activity during growth and regeneration have not yet been elucidated. RESULTS: Our data show that the zebrafish retina has two kinds of specialized niches that sustain retinal stem cells: 1) a neuroepithelial germinal zone at the interface between neural retina and ciliary epithelium, called the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), a continuous annulus around the retinal circumference, and 2) the microenvironment around some M├╝ller glia in the differentiated retina. In the uninjured retina, scattered M├╝ller glia (more frequently those in peripheral retina) are associated with clusters of proliferating retinal progenitors that are restricted to the rod photoreceptor lineage, but following injury, the M├╝ller-associated retinal progenitors can function as multipotent retinal stem cells to regenerate other types of retinal neurons. The CMZ has several features in common with the neurogenic niches in the adult mammalian brain, including access to the apical epithelial surface and a close association with blood vessels. M├╝ller glia in the teleost retina have a complex response to local injury that includes some features of reactive gliosis (up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, and re-entry into the cell cycle) together with dedifferentiation and re-acquisition of phenotypic and molecular characteristics of multipotent retinal progenitors in the CMZ (diffuse distribution of N-cadherin, activation of Notch-Delta signaling, and expression of rx1, vsx2/Chx10, and pax6a) along with characteristics associated with radial glia (expression of brain lipid binding protein, BLBP). We also describe a novel specific marker for M├╝ller glia, apoE. CONCLUSION: The stem cell niches that support multi-lineage retinal progenitors in the intact, growing and regenerating teleost retina have properties characteristic of neuroepithelia and neurogenic radial glia. The regenerative capacity of the adult zebrafish retina with its ability to replace lost retinal neurons provides an opportunity to discover the molecular regulators that lead to functional repair of damaged neural tissue

    Systemy telefonii impulsowo-kodowej. Cz─Ö┼Ť─ç I. Przegl─ůd Zagadnie┼ä ┼ü─ůczno┼Ťci, 1967, nr 11 (74)

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    Reversible acetylation regulates acetate and propionate metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis

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    Carbon metabolic pathways are important to the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, extremely little is known about metabolic regulation in mycobacteria. There is growing evidence for lysine acetylation being a mechanism of regulating bacterial metabolism. Lysine acetylation is a post-translational modification in which an acetyl group is covalently attached to the side chain of a lysine residue. This modification is mediated by acetyltransferases, which add acetyl groups, and deacetylases, which remove the acetyl groups. Here we set out to test whether lysine acetylation and deacetylation impact acetate metabolism in the model mycobacteria Mycobacterium smegmatis, which possesses 25 candidate acetyltransferases and 3 putative lysine deacetylases. Using mutants lacking predicted acetyltransferases and deacetylases we showed that acetate metabolism in M. smegmatis is regulated by reversible acetylation of acetyl-CoA synthetase (Ms-Acs) through the action of a single pair of enzymes: the acetyltransferase Ms-PatA and the sirtuin deacetylase Ms-SrtN. We also confirmed that the role of Ms-PatA in regulating Ms-Acs regulation depends on cAMP binding. We additionally demonstrated a role for Ms-Acs, Ms-PatA and Ms-SrtN in regulating the metabolism of propionate in M. smegmatis. Finally, along with Ms-Acs, we identified a candidate propionyl-CoA synthetase, Ms5404, as acetylated in whole-cell lysates. This work lays the foundation for studying the regulatory circuit of acetylation and deacetylation in the cellular context of mycobacteria

    Ni-62(n,gamma) and Ni-63(n,gamma) cross sections measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The cross section of the Ni-62(n,gamma) reaction was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Capture kernels of 42 resonances were analyzed up to 200 keV neutron energy and Maxwellian averaged cross sections (MACS) from kT = 5-100 keV were calculated. With a total uncertainty of 4.5%, the stellar cross section is in excellent agreement with the the KADoNiS compilation at kT = 30 keV, while being systematically lower up to a factor of 1.6 at higher stellar temperatures. The cross section of the Ni-63(n,gamma) reaction was measured for the first time at n_TOF. We determined unresolved cross sections from 10 to 270 keV with a systematic uncertainty of 17%. These results provide fundamental constraints on s-process production of heavier species, especially the production of Cu in massive stars, which serve as the dominant source of Cu in the solar system.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    The 33S(n,╬▒)30Si cross section measurement at n-TOF-EAR2 (CERN) : From 0.01 eV to the resonance region

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    The 33S(n,╬▒)30Si cross section measurement, using 10B(n,╬▒) as reference, at the n-TOF Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) facility at CERN is presented. Data from 0.01 eV to 100 keV are provided and, for the first time, the cross section is measured in the range from 0.01 eV to 10 keV. These data may be used for a future evaluation of the cross section because present evaluations exhibit large discrepancies. The 33S(n,╬▒)30Si reaction is of interest in medical physics because of its possible use as a cooperative target to boron in Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT)
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