28,461 research outputs found

    Incorporating Nuisance Parameters in Likelihoods for Multisource Spectra

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    We describe here the general mathematical approach to constructing likelihoods for fitting observed spectra in one or more dimensions with multiple sources, including the effects of systematic uncertainties represented as nuisance parameters, when the likelihood is to be maximized with respect to these parameters. We consider three types of nuisance parameters: simple multiplicative factors, source spectra "morphing" parameters, and parameters representing statistical uncertainties in the predicted source spectra.Comment: Presented at PHYSTAT 2011, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, January 2011, to be published in a CERN Yellow Repor

    Paths to a malaria vaccine illuminated by parasite genomics.

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    More human death and disease is caused by malaria parasites than by all other eukaryotic pathogens combined. As early as the sequencing of the first human genome, malaria parasite genomics was prioritized to fuel the discovery of vaccine candidate antigens. This stimulated increased research on malaria, generating new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of infection and immunity. This review of recent developments illustrates how new approaches in parasite genomics, and increasingly large amounts of data from population studies, are helping to identify antigens that are promising lead targets. Although these results have been encouraging, effective discovery and characterization need to be coupled with more innovation and funding to translate findings into newly designed vaccine products for clinical trials

    Power system requirements

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    An overview of electrical power requirements for each mission of a baseline and alternate plan for space activities in the 1990-2035 timeframe is presented. The specific missions included low earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO), lunar, Mars, and asteroid related projects

    Laser power transmission

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    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation

    Langley program of GaAs solar cells

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    A brief overview of the development of GaAs solar cell technology is provided. An 18 to 20 percent AMO efficiency, stability under radiation and elevated-temperature operation, and high power-to-weight ratio are among the factors studied. Cell cost and availability are also examined

    Observation and mechanism of direct-current quenching of alternating-current electro- luminescence in typical zinc sulfide phosphors

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    Direct current quenching of alternating current electroluminescence in zinc sulfide phosphor

    GaAs solar cells

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    The major thrusts proposed for GaAs were increased efficiency and improved radiation damage data. Current laboratory production cells consistently achieve 16 percent AMO one-Sun efficiency. The user community wants 18-percent efficient cells as soon as possible, and such a goal is though to be achievable in 2 years with sufficient research funds. A 20-percent research cell is considered the efficiency limit with current technology, and such a cell seems realizable in approximately 4 years. Future efficiency improvements await improved substrates and materials. For still higher efficiencies, concentrator cells and multijunction cells are proposed as near-term directions

    Case-control approach to identify Plasmodium falciparum polymorphisms associated with severe malaria.

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    BACKGROUND: Studies to identify phenotypically-associated polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum 23 Mb genome will require a dense array of marker loci. It was considered promising to undertake initial allelic association studies to prospect for virulence polymorphisms in Thailand, as the low endemicity would allow higher levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) than would exist in more highly endemic areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assessment of LD was first made with 11 microsatellite loci widely dispersed in the parasite genome, and 16 microsatellite loci covering a approximately 140 kb region of chromosome 2 (an arbitrarily representative non-telomeric part of the genome), in a sample of 100 P. falciparum isolates. The dispersed loci showed minimal LD (Index of Association, I(S) (A) = 0.013, P = 0.10), while those on chromosome 2 showed significant LD values mostly between loci <5 kb apart. A disease association study was then performed comparing parasites in 113 severe malaria cases and 245 mild malaria controls. Genotyping was performed on almost all polymorphisms in the binding domains of three erythrocyte binding antigens (eba175, eba140 and eba181), and repeat sequence polymorphisms approximately 2 kb apart in each of three reticulocyte binding homologues (Rh1, Rh2a/b, and Rh4). Differences between cases and controls were seen for (i) codons 388-90 in eba175, and (ii) a repeat sequence centred on Rh1 codon 667. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Allelic association studies on P. falciparum require dense genotypic markers, even in a population of only moderate endemicity that has more extensive LD than highly endemic populations. Disease-associated polymorphisms in the eba175 and Rh1 genes encode differences in the middle of previously characterised erythrocyte binding domains, marking these for further investigation