6,304 research outputs found

    Verified Correctness and Security of mbedTLS HMAC-DRBG

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    We have formalized the functional specification of HMAC-DRBG (NIST 800-90A), and we have proved its cryptographic security--that its output is pseudorandom--using a hybrid game-based proof. We have also proved that the mbedTLS implementation (C program) correctly implements this functional specification. That proof composes with an existing C compiler correctness proof to guarantee, end-to-end, that the machine language program gives strong pseudorandomness. All proofs (hybrid games, C program verification, compiler, and their composition) are machine-checked in the Coq proof assistant. Our proofs are modular: the hybrid game proof holds on any implementation of HMAC-DRBG that satisfies our functional specification. Therefore, our functional specification can serve as a high-assurance reference.Comment: Appearing in CCS '1

    Evaluation of an animal-activated scarecrow and a monofilament fence for reducing deer use of soybean fields

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    We measured the efficacy of an animal-activated scarecrow (AAS) and a 5-strand monofilament fence (MF) at reducing white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of 0.4-ha soybean plots in Missouri, USA. Our study design consisted of 9 soybean plots; 3 served as controls, 3 were surrounded by an MF, and 3 were surrounded by an AAS. Data collected for each protected plot included soybean height and weight taken from within and immediately adjacent to 10 unprotected, equally spaced 1 -m2 exclosures. A measure of deer use for each plot was collected with video cameras. A mixed-effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that heights of protected and unprotected soybean plants were significantly different for MF plots (F2 =93.6, P=0.01) and controls (F2 =47.6, P= 0.02) but not different for AAS plots (F2=2.16, P=0.272). Soybean plants in AAS plots were heavier than those from MF or control plots (F2 =10.2, P=0.01). Plant weight differences in protected and unprotected areas for AAS plots were less than those from MF plots (t6=2.55, P=0.04) or control plots (t6=4.46, P=0.004). Plant weight differences between MF and control plots were marginally significant (t6= 1.192, P=0.10). Deer spent less time in AAS plots than MF (t6=2.55, P=0.041 or control plots (t6=2.55, P= 0.01). Scarecrow activations increased over time in all 3 AAS plots (all 95% confidence intervals \u3e0), suggesting that deer were habituating to the devices. We suggest that AAS may be useful for short-term deterrence of deer from small areas

    The Higgs System in and Beyond the Standard Model

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    After the discovery of the Higgs boson particle on the 4th of July of 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider, sited at the european CERN laboratory, we are entering in a fascinating period for Particle Physics where both theorists and experimentalists are devoted to fully understand the features of this new particle and the possible consequences for High Energy Physics of the Higgs system both within and beyond the Standard Model of fundamental particle interactions. This paper is a summary of the lectures given at the third IDPASC school (Santiago de Compostela, Feb. 2013, Spain) addressed to PhD students, and contains a short introduction to the main basic aspects of the Higgs boson particle in and beyond the Standard Model.Comment: 62 pages, 31 figures, Lectures of the IDPASC School at Santiago de Compostela, Spain, February 201

    Audit of surgical delay in relationship to outcome after proximal femoral fracture.

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    To ascertain the influence of surgical delay on outcome after proximal femoral fracture in elderly females, a cohort study of patients presenting in 1987 was compared to 1989/90. Organisational changes in the intervening period were introduced to reduce delay to surgical intervention. Two hundred and eighty females aged 65 years and over presenting from the local catchment area of an acute inner-city teaching hospital were enrolled in the study. Seventy-nine patients received surgery in 1987 and 186 in 1989/90. The one year mortality was 34% and 26% respectively. The proportion receiving surgery within 24 hours rose from 34% in 1987 to 57% in 1989/90. The relative hazard of the group receiving surgery on day 2 in comparison to day 1 was 1.7 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.9) when adjusted for co-variance of age and mental score. Medically fit elderly patients presenting with proximal femoral fracture have improved survival with early surgery within 24 hours of admission. Improvements in the organisation of hospital care will result in important benefits for the increasing number of elderly females presenting with proximal femoral fracture

    Correlations of the elements of the neutrino mass matrix

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    Assuming Majorana nature of neutrinos, we re-investigate, in the light of the recent measurement of the reactor mixing angle, the allowed ranges for the absolute values of the elements of the neutrino mass matrix in the basis where the charged-lepton mass matrix is diagonal. Apart from the derivation of upper and lower bounds on the values of the matrix elements, we also study their correlations. Moreover, we analyse the sensitivity of bounds and correlations to the global fit results of the neutrino oscillation parameters which are available in the literature.Comment: 37 pages, 146 figures, minor corrections, 17 additional figures, version for publication in JHE

    Understanding Pound-Drever-Hall locking using voltage controlled radio-frequency oscillators: An undergraduate experiment

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    We have developed a senior undergraduate experiment that illustrates frequency stabilization techniques using radio-frequency electronics. The primary objective is to frequency stabilize a voltage controlled oscillator to a cavity resonance at 800 MHz using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. This technique is commonly applied to stabilize lasers at optical frequencies. By using only radio-frequency equipment it is possible to systematically study aspects of the technique more thoroughly, inexpensively, and free from eye hazards. Students also learn about modular radio-frequency electronics and basic feedback control loops. By varying the temperature of the resonator, students can determine the thermal expansion coefficients of copper, aluminum, and super invar.Comment: 9 pages, 10 figure

    Memory usage verification using Hip/Sleek.

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    Embedded systems often come with constrained memory footprints. It is therefore essential to ensure that software running on such platforms fulfils memory usage specifications at compile-time, to prevent memory-related software failure after deployment. Previous proposals on memory usage verification are not satisfactory as they usually can only handle restricted subsets of programs, especially when shared mutable data structures are involved. In this paper, we propose a simple but novel solution. We instrument programs with explicit memory operations so that memory usage verification can be done along with the verification of other properties, using an automated verification system Hip/Sleek developed recently by Chin et al.[10,19]. The instrumentation can be done automatically and is proven sound with respect to an underlying semantics. One immediate benefit is that we do not need to develop from scratch a specific system for memory usage verification. Another benefit is that we can verify more programs, especially those involving shared mutable data structures, which previous systems failed to handle, as evidenced by our experimental results

    OzFlux data: Network integration from collection to curation

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    © Author(s) 2017. Measurement of the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmospheric boundary-layer by the eddy covariance technique has undergone great change in the last 2 decades. Early studies of these exchanges were confined to brief field campaigns in carefully controlled conditions followed by months of data analysis. Current practice is to run tower-based eddy covariance systems continuously over several years due to the need for continuous monitoring as part of a global effort to develop local-, regional-, continental-and global-scale budgets of carbon, water and energy. Efficient methods of processing the increased quantities of data are needed to maximise the time available for analysis and interpretation. Standardised methods are needed to remove differences in data processing as possible contributors to observed spatial variability. Furthermore, public availability of these data sets assists with undertaking global research efforts. The OzFlux data path has been developed (i) to provide a standard set of quality control and post-processing tools across the network, thereby facilitating inter-site integration and spatial comparisons; (ii) to increase the time available to researchers for analysis and interpretation by reducing the time spent collecting and processing data; (iii) to propagate both data and metadata to the final product; and (iv) to facilitate the use of the OzFlux data by adopting a standard file format and making the data available from web-based portals. Discovery of the OzFlux data set is facilitated through incorporation in FLUXNET data syntheses and the publication of collection metadata via the RIF-CS format. This paper serves two purposes. The first is to describe the data sets, along with their quality control and post-processing, for the other papers of this Special Issue. The second is to provide an example of one solution to the data collection and curation challenges that are encountered by similar flux tower networks worldwide
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