261 research outputs found

    Security governance and networks: New theoretical perspectives in transatlantic security

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    The end of the Cold War has not only witnessed the rise of new transnational threats such as terrorism, crime, proliferation and civil war; it has also seen the growing role of non-state actors in the provision of security in Europe and North America. Two concepts in particular have been used to describe these transformations: security governance and networks. However, the differences and potential theoretical utility of these two concepts for the study of contemporary security have so far been under-examined. This article seeks to address this gap. It proposes that security governance can help to explain the transformation of Cold War security structures, whereas network analysis is particularly useful for understanding the relations and interactions between public and private actors in the making and implementation of national and international security policies

    Neuromuscular Controller Embedded in a Powered Ankle Exoskeleton:Effects on Gait, Clinical Features and Subjective Perspective of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injured Subjects

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    Powered exoskeletons are among the emerging technologies claiming to assist functional ambulation. The potential to adapt robotic assistance based on specific motor abilities of incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) subjects, is crucial to optimize Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Achilles, an autonomous wearable robot able to assist ankle during walking, was developed for iSCI subjects and utilizes a NeuroMuscular Controller (NMC). NMC can be used to adapt robotic assistance based on specific residual functional abilities of subjects. The main aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effects of the NMC-controlled Achilles, used as an assistive device, on chronic iSCI participants' performance, by assessing gait speed during 10-session training of robot-aided walking. Secondary aims were to assess training impact on participants' motion, clinical and functional features and to evaluate subjective perspective in terms of attitude towards technology, workload, usability and satisfaction. Results showed that 5 training sessions were necessary to significantly improve robot-aided gait speed on short paths and consequently to optimize HRI. Moreover, the training allowed participants who initially were not able to walk for 6 minutes, to improve gait endurance during Achilles-aided walking and to reduce perceived fatigue. Improvements were obtained also in gait speed during free walking, thus suggesting a potential rehabilitative impact, even if Achilles-aided walking was not faster than free walking. Participants' subjective evaluations indicated a positive experience

    What explains ethnic organizational violence? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Russia

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    Why do some ethnopolitical organizations use violence? Research on substate violence often uses the state level of analysis, or only analyzes groups that are already violent. Using a resource mobilization framework drawn from a broad literature, we test hypotheses with new data on hundreds of violent and non-violent ethnopolitical organizations in Eastern Europe and Russia. Our study finds interorganizational competition, state repression and strong group leadership associated with organizational violence. Lack of popularity and holding territory are also associated with violence. We do not find social service provision positively related to violence, which contrasts with research on the Middle East

    MAGIC Upper Limits for two Milagro-detected, Bright Fermi Sources in the Region of SNR G65.1+0.6

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    We report on the observation of the region around supernova remnant G65.1+0.6 with the stand-alone MAGIC-I telescope. This region hosts the two bright GeV gamma-ray sources 1FGL J1954.3+2836 and 1FGL J1958.6+2845. They are identified as GeV pulsars and both have a possible counterpart detected at about 35 TeV by the Milagro observatory. MAGIC collected 25.5 hours of good quality data, and found no significant emission in the range around 1 TeV. We therefore report differential flux upper limits, assuming the emission to be point-like (<0.1 deg) or within a radius of 0.3 deg. In the point-like scenario, the flux limits around 1 TeV are at the level of 3 % and 2 % of the Crab Nebula flux, for the two sources respectively. This implies that the Milagro emission is either extended over a much larger area than our point spread function, or it must be peaked at energies beyond 1 TeV, resulting in a photon index harder than 2.2 in the TeV band.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, 1 tabl

    Information Warfare and New Organizational Landscapes: An Inquiry into the ExxonMobil–Greenpeace Dispute over Climate Change

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    A defining characteristic of the emergence of new organizational landscapes is that information is not just being used as a tool by organizations, as it is more usually understood, but also as a weapon in a ?war of position?. As organizations seek to influence public perception over such emotive issues as climate change, conflict at the ideation level can give rise to information warfare campaigns. In this article, we analyse the ways in which ExxonMobil and Greenpeace employ distinctive informational tactics against a range of diverse targets in their dispute over the climate change debate. The purpose of this article is to advance the neo-Gramscian perspective on social movement organizations as a framework for understanding such behaviour. We argue that information warfare is likely to become common as corporations and non-governmental organizations are increasingly sensitive to their informational environment as a source of both opportunity and possible conflict

    Robot Wars: US Empire and geopolitics in the robotic age

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    How will the robot age transform warfare? What geopolitical futures are being imagined by the US military? This article constructs a robotic futurology to examine these crucial questions. Its central concern is how robots – driven by leaps in artificial intelligence and swarming – are rewiring the spaces and logics of US empire, warfare, and geopolitics. The article begins by building a more-than-human geopolitics to de-center the role of humans in conflict and foreground a worldly understanding of robots. The article then analyzes the idea of US empire, before speculating upon how and why robots are materializing new forms of proxy war. A three-part examination of the shifting spaces of US empire then follows: (1) Swarm Wars explores the implications of miniaturized drone swarming; (2) Roboworld investigates how robots are changing US military basing strategy and producing new topological spaces of violence; and (3) The Autogenic Battle-Site reveals how autonomous robots will produce emergent, technologically event-ful sites of security and violence – revolutionizing the battlespace. The conclusion reflects on the rise of a robotic US empire and its consequences for democracy

    A Single Distance Sample of Molecular Outflows from High-Mass Young Stellar Objects

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    We have made 12CO 2-1 and 1-0 maps of eleven molecular outflows associated with intermediate to high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in order to establish whether the correlations between outflow parameters and source bolometric luminosity hold in the high-mass regime. It is important to consider the effects of Malmquist-type biases when looking at high-mass YSOs, as they are generally much more distant than their low mass counterparts. We therefore chose only objects located at ~2kpc. We find that the relations show much more scatter than is seen in similar studies of low-mass YSOs. We also find that the mass-spectrum is significantly steeper in high-mass outflows, indicating a larger mass-fraction at lower velocities, a low collimation factor (~1-2) and no Hubble-like relationship.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&A, 14 pages, including 13 figure