90 research outputs found

    CAP Chronicles: A Retrospective Look at the Violence Prevention Initiative's Community Action Programs

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    Summarizes an evaluation of an initiative that took a public health approach to youth violence, working with academics, residents, social service providers, and policy makers. Focuses on the impact and strategies of local Community Action Programs (CAP)

    Evaluating Faculty and Student Use of Digital Resources for Teaching and Learning

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    A survey of research methods used to study student and faculty use of digital libraries and digital resources across a number of related studies.National Science Foundation DUE 1049537 & 1049531not peer reviewe

    Improving undergraduate STEM education: The efficacy of discipline-based professional development

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    We sought to determine whether instructional practices used by undergraduate faculty in the geosciences have shifted from traditional teacher-centered lecture toward student-engaged teaching practices and to evaluate whether the national professional development program On the Cutting Edge (hereinafter Cutting Edge) has been a contributing factor in this change. We surveyed geoscience faculty across the United States in 2004, 2009, and 2012 and asked about teaching practices as well as levels of engagement in education research, scientific research, and professional development related to teaching. We tested these self-reported survey results with direct observations of teaching using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, and we conducted interviews to understand what aspects of Cutting Edge have supported change. Survey data show that teaching strategies involving active learning have become more common, that these practices are concentrated in faculty who invest in learning about teaching, and that faculty investment in learning about teaching has increased. Regression analysis shows that, after controlling for other key influences, faculty who have participated in Cutting Edge programs and who regularly use resources on the Cutting Edge website are statistically more likely to use active learning teaching strategies. Cutting Edge participants also report that learning about teaching, the availability of teaching resources, and interactions with peers have supported changes in their teaching practice. Our data suggest that even one-time participation in a workshop with peers can lead to improved teaching by supporting a combination of affective and cognitive learning outcomes

    “I Felt Like a Superhero”: The Experience of Responding to Drug Overdose Among Individuals Trained in Overdose Prevention

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    BACKGROUND: Overdose prevention programs (OPPs) train people who inject drugs and other community members to prevent, recognise and respond to opioid overdose. However, little is known about the experience of taking up the role of an overdose responder for the participants. METHODS: We present findings from qualitative interviews with 30 participants from two OPPs in Los Angeles, CA, USA from 2010 to 2011 who had responded to at least one overdose since being trained in overdose prevention and response. RESULTS: Being trained by an OPP and responding to overdoses had both positive and negative effects for trained responders . Positive effects include an increased sense of control and confidence, feelings of heroism and pride, and a recognition and appreciation of one\u27s expertise. Negative effects include a sense of burden, regret, fear, and anger, which sometimes led to cutting social ties, but might also be mitigated by the increased empowerment associated with the positive effects. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that becoming an overdose responder can involve taking up a new social role that has positive effects, but also confers some stress that may require additional support. OPPs should provide flexible opportunities for social support to individuals making the transition to this new and critical social role. Equipping individuals with the skills, technology, and support they need to respond to drug overdose has the potential to confer both individual and community-wide benefits

    Learning from the COVID-19 Pandemic: How Faculty Experiences Can Prepare Us for Future System-Wide Disruption

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    The COVID-19 pandemic provided education researchers with a natural experiment: an opportunity to investigate the impacts of a system-wide, involuntary move to online teaching and to assess the characteristics of individuals who adapted more readily. To capture the impacts in real time, our team recruited college-level geoscience instructors through the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) and American Geophysical Union (AGU) communities to participate in our study in the spring of 2020. Each weekday for three successive weeks, participants (n = 262) were asked to rate their experienced disruption in four domains: teaching, research, ability to communicate with their professional community, and work-life balance. The rating system (a scale of 1–5, with 5 as severely disrupted) was designed to assess (a) where support needs were greatest, (b) how those needs evolved over time, and (c) respondents’ capacity to adapt. In addition, participants were asked two open-response questions, designed to provide preliminary insights into how individuals were adapting—what was their most important task that day and what was their greatest insight from the previous day. Participants also provided information on their institution type, position, discipline, gender, race, dependents, and online teaching experience (see supplemental material)

    Cross-analysis of October 2013 Staff Retreats and SWOT Activities

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    Report completed by students enrolled in OLPD 8595: Evaluation Problems, taught by Dr. Jean King in spring 2014.This project was completed as part of the 2013-2014 Resilient Communities Project (rcp.umn.edu) partnership with the City of North St. Paul. In 2013, the City of North St. Paul hired a new city manager who wanted to foster continued reflection among city departments, and departments held a series of retreats as part of this initiative. To determine the impact of these retreats, project lead Jason Ziemer worked with students in Dr. Jean King’s OLPD 8595: Evaluation Problems. The students conducted a SWOT analysis during the retreats and developed a set of recommendations for each. The final memo is available.This project was supported by the Resilient Communities Project (RCP), a program at the University of Minnesota whose mission is to connect communities in Minnesota with U of MN faculty and students to advance community resilience through collaborative, course-based projects. RCP is a program of the Center for Urban and Regional Affairs (CURA). More information at http://www.rcp.umn.edu

    Correlates and Consequences of Opioid Misuse among High-Risk Young Adults

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    Background. Prescription opioids are the most frequently misused class of prescription drug among young adults aged 18-25, yet trajectories of opioid misuse and escalation are understudied. We sought to model opioid misuse patterns and relationships between opioid misuse, sociodemographic factors, and other substance uses. Methods. Participants were 575 young adults age 16-25 who had misused opioids in the last 90 days. Latent class analysis was performed with models based on years of misuse, recency of misuse, and alternate modes of administration within the past 12 months, 3 months, and 30 days. Results. Four latent classes emerged that were differentially associated with heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine use, tranquilizer misuse, daily opioid misuse, and opioid withdrawal. Alternate modes of administering opioids were associated with increased risk for these outcomes. Sociodemographic factors, homelessness, prescription history, and history of parental drug use were significantly associated with riskier opioid misuse trajectories. Conclusion. Young adults who reported more debilitating experiences as children and adolescents misused opioids longer and engaged in higher risk alternate modes of administering opioids. Data on decisions both to use and to alter a drug's form can be combined to describe patterns of misuse over time and predict important risk behaviors

    Hedgehog-Interacting Protein is a multimodal antagonist of Hedgehog signalling

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    Hedgehog (HH) morphogen signalling, crucial for cell growth and tissue patterning in animals, is initiated by the binding of dually lipidated HH ligands to cell surface receptors. Hedgehog-Interacting Protein (HHIP), the only reported secreted inhibitor of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signalling, binds directly to SHH with high nanomolar affinity, sequestering SHH. Here, we report the structure of the HHIP N-terminal domain (HHIP-N) in complex with a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). HHIP-N displays a unique bipartite fold with a GAG-binding domain alongside a Cysteine Rich Domain (CRD). We show that HHIP-N is required to convey full HHIP inhibitory function, likely by interacting with the cholesterol moiety covalently linked to HH ligands, thereby preventing this SHH-attached cholesterol from binding to the HH receptor Patched (PTCH1). We also present the structure of the HHIP C-terminal domain in complex with the GAG heparin. Heparin can bind to both HHIP-N and HHIP-C, thereby inducing clustering at the cell surface and generating a high-avidity platform for SHH sequestration and inhibition. Our data suggest a multimodal mechanism, in which HHIP can bind two specific sites on the SHH morphogen, alongside multiple GAG interactions, to inhibit SHH signalling
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