167 research outputs found

    Fat-free mass and calf circumference as body composition indices to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis in patients with diabetes

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    13301甲第4345号博士(医学)金沢大学博士論文本文Full 以下に掲載:Journal of Diabetes Investigation 7(3) pp.352-358 2016. Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd. 共著者:Yuki Isobe, Masaru Sakurai, Yuki Kita, Yumie Takeshita, Hirofumi Misu, Shuichi Kaneko, Toshinari Takamur

    High Time-Resolution Monitoring of Free-Tropospheric Sulfur Dioxide and Nitric Acid at the Summit of Mt. Fuji, Japan

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    This is the first paper that describes the atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitric acid (HNO3) monitored with a good time-resolution at the summit (3,776 m a.s.l.), which is located in the free troposphere, and southeastern foot (1,284 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Fuji. Japan. During the summer of 2012, two analytical systems consisting mainly of a parallel-plate wet denuder and ion chromatograph operated simultaneously at both the sampling sites. All the samples collected at both the sampling sites contained detectable levels of sulfate from gas-phase SO2 while the nitrate from gas-phase HNO3 was detectable in 97.8% of air samples at the southeastern foot and 88.4% at the summit. The average concentrations of SO2 and HNO3 were, respectively, 0.061 ± 0.071 and 0.031 ± 0.020 ppbv at the summit (n = 672), and 0.347 ± 0.425 and 0.146 ± 0.070 ppbv at the southeastern foot (n = 1344) of Mt. Fuji. Both the acidic gases at the southeastern foot and the HNO3 at the summit showed a diurnal pattern with daytime maxima and nighttime minima. Meanwhile, the SO2 at the summit did not show a distinct shift, which indicates the SO2 concentrations at the summit would be principally controlled by the advection of air parcel in the free troposphere

    Fat-free mass and calf circumference as body composition indices to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis in patients with diabetes

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    Aims/Introduction: To investigate the clinical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with non-exercise activity thermogenesis that is composed of basal energy expenditure (BEE) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance, and BEE and DIT were measured using indirect calorimetry in 40 Japanese patients with diabetes. Results: BEE correlated positively with bodyweight, body mass index, fat mass, and fat-free mass, and correlated negatively with age in both men and women. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BEE correlated positively with both fat mass and fat-free mass independently of sex and age. In addition, DIT correlated positively with bodyweight, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass, and correlated negatively with age in women, but not men. Fat-free mass contributed to DIT at least partly, and an aging-related decrease in DIT was observed. The best anthropometric parameter that reflected fat mass and fat-free mass was hip circumference (HC) and calf circumference (CC), respectively, in both men and women. Indeed, both HC (men β = 0.600, P < 0.001; women β = 0.752, P < 0.001) and CC (men β = 0.810, P = 0.012; women β = 0.821, P = 0.002) were correlated with BEE independently of age and sex. In addition, CC (β = 0.653, P = 0.009), but not HC was correlated with DIT significantly only in females, independently of age. Conclusions: HC reflects fat mass and was positively associated with BEE, but not with DIT. In contrast, CC reflects fat-free mass, and was positively associated with BEE in both men and women, and with DIT in women. © 2015 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

    Stellar and AGN Feedback Probed with Outflows in JWST Galaxies at z=3-9: Implications of Frequent Nearly-Spherical Galactic Fountains

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    We study outflows in 130 galaxies with -22<MUV<-16 at z=3-9 identified in JWST NIRSpec and NIRCam WFSS data taken by the ERO, CEERS, FRESCO, GLASS, and JADES programs. We identify 30 out of the 130 galaxies with broad components of FWHM~200-700 km/s in the emission lines of Hα{\alpha} and [OIII] that trace ionized outflows, and find no excesses from the star-formation main sequence. Four out of the 30 outflowing galaxies are Type 1 AGN whose Hα{\alpha} emission lines include line profile components as broad as FWHM>1000 km/s. With the velocity shift and line widths of the outflow broad lines, we obtain ~80-500 km/s for the outflow velocities. We find that the outflow velocities as a function of star-formation rate are comparable to or higher than those of galaxies at z~1, accounting for the selection bias, while the outflow velocities of AGN are large but not significantly different from the others. Interestingly, these outflow velocities are typically not high enough to escape from the galactic potentials, suggestive of fountain-type outflows, which are concluded on the basis of thorough comparisons with recent JWST results. We estimate mass loading factors η{\eta} to be 0.1-1 that are not particularly large, but comparable with those of z~1 outflows. The large fraction of galaxies with outflows (30% with high resolution data) provides constraints on outflow parameters, suggesting a wide opening angle of >45 deg and a large duty-cycle of >30%, which gives a picture of more frequent and spherical outflows in high-z galaxies.Comment: 16 pages, 11 figures, submitted to the Astrophysical Journa

    JWST Measurements of Neutral Hydrogen Fractions and Ionized Bubble Sizes at z=712z=7-12 Obtained with Lyα\alpha Damping Wing Absorptions in 26 Bright Continuum Galaxies

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    We present volume-averaged neutral hydrogen fractions x_{\rm \HI} and ionized bubble radii RbR_{\rm b} measured with Lyα\alpha damping wing absorptions of galaxies at the epoch of reionization. We combine JWST/NIRSpec spectra taken by CEERS, GO-1433, and DDT-2750 programs, and obtain 26 bright UV-continuum galaxies at 7<z<127<z<12. We construct 4 composite spectra binned by redshift, and find the clear evolution of spectral flattening towards high redshift at the rest-frame 12161216 \AA\ suggesting the increase of Lyα\alpha damping wing absorption. We estimate Lyα\alpha damping wing absorption in the composite spectra with realistic templates including Lyα\alpha emission and circum-galactic medium absorptions. Assuming the standard inside-out reionization picture having an ionized bubble with RbR_{\rm b} around a galaxy in the inter-galactic medium of x_{\rm \HI}, we obtain x_{\rm \HI} (RbR_{\rm b}) values monotonically increasing (decreasing) from x_{\rm \HI}={0.46}^{+0.36}_{-0.32} to 0.830.21+0.12{0.83}^{+0.12}_{-0.21} (Rb=1.490.43+0.37×102R_{\rm b}={1.49}^{+0.37}_{-0.43}\times10^2 to 5.043.73+8.06{5.04}^{+8.06}_{-3.73} comoving Mpc) at redshift 7.1400.076+0.0397.140^{+0.039}_{-0.076} to 9.8011.164+1.5999.801^{+1.599}_{-1.164}. The redshift evolution of x_{\rm \HI} indicates moderately late reionization history consistent with the one suggested from the electron scattering of cosmic microwave background and the evolution of UV luminosity function with an escape fraction fesc0.17f_{\rm esc}\simeq 0.17. Our RbR_{\rm b} measurements are about 20 times larger than the cosmic average values estimated by analytic calculations for a given x_{\rm \HI}, while our RbR_{\rm b} measurements are comparable with the values for merged ionized bubbles around bright galaxies predicted by recent numerical simulations

    Pure Spectroscopic Constraints on UV Luminosity Functions and Cosmic Star Formation History From 25 Galaxies at zspec=8.6113.20z_\mathrm{spec}=8.61-13.20 Confirmed with JWST/NIRSpec

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    We present pure spectroscopic constraints on the UV luminosity functions and cosmic star formation rate (SFR) densities from 25 galaxies at zspec=8.6113.20z_\mathrm{spec}=8.61-13.20. By reducing the JWST/NIRSpec spectra taken in multiple programs of ERO, ERS, GO, and DDT with our analysis technique, we independently confirm 16 galaxies at zspec=8.6111.40z_\mathrm{spec}=8.61-11.40 including new redshift determinations, and a bright interloper at zspec=4.91z_\mathrm{spec}=4.91 that was claimed as a photometric candidate at z~16. In conjunction with nine galaxies at redshifts up to zspec=13.20z_\mathrm{spec}=13.20 in the literature, we make a sample of 25 spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies in total and carefully derive the best estimates and lower limits of the UV luminosity functions. These UV luminosity function constraints are consistent with the previous photometric estimates within the uncertainties and indicate mild redshift evolution towards z~12 showing tensions with some theoretical models of rapid evolution. With these spectroscopic constraints, we obtain firm lower limits of the cosmic SFR densities and spectroscopically confirm a high SFR density at z~12 beyond the constant star-formation efficiency models, which supports earlier claims from the photometric studies. While there are no spectroscopically-confirmed galaxies with very large stellar masses violating the Λ\LambdaCDM model due to the removal of the bright interloper, we confirm star-forming galaxies at zspec=1113z_\mathrm{spec}=11-13 with stellar masses much higher than model predictions. Our results indicate possibilities of high star-formation efficiency (>5%), hidden AGN, top-heavy initial mass function (possibly with Pop-III), and large scatter/variance. Having these successful and unsuccessful spectroscopy results, we suggest observational strategies for efficiently removing low redshift interlopers for future JWST programs.Comment: 27 pages, 18 figures, submitted to Ap

    Formation of vv lacunary polyoxovanadates and interconversion reactions of dodecavanadate species

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    金沢大学理工研究域物質化学系Oxidation, reactions of the reduced decavanadate [VIV2Vv8O26]4- (1) with halide guest anions were investigated for the synthesis of Vv host molecules. The reaction with Cl- afforded a new dodecavanadate, [HVV12O32(C1)]4-(3), which incorporated the guest chloride anion. The polyoxovanadate framework of 3 is different from, the bowl-shaped dodecavanadate [VV12O 32(CH3CN)]4- (2). The structure of 3 is regarded as a trilacunary counterpart of the pentadecavanadate [V V9VIV8O36C1] 4-. Employment: of an F-template yielded the layered polyoxovanadate [HVV11O29F2] 4- (4). The framework of 4 is a monolacunary structure of the fluoride-incorporated dodecavanadate [H6VV2VIv10O30F2] 6-, in which one of the VO groups at the belt position is removed. The three vana-dium atoms in the capping units are connected, by (μ3-F bridges. Reaction with Br provided [HVv12O32(Br)]4- (5) with minor formation of [H3VV10O28]3- Interconversion reactions between 2, 3, and 4 proceeded as follows: the reaction of 2 with Cl- prompted, an isomerization reaction of the bowl-type framework, affording 3; the reaction of 3 with F- gave 4; the reaction of 4 with CH3CN reproduced acetonitrile-incorporated 2. Complexes 3 and 4 were characterized by X-ray analysis. Polyoxovanadates 3 and 4, with the highest oxidation cores, exhibited distinct signals in the 51V NMR spectra, corresponding to lacunary polyoxovanadate geometries. © Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

    A JWST/NIRSpec First Census of Broad-Line AGNs at z=4-7: Detection of 10 Faint AGNs with M_BH~10^6-10^8 M_sun and Their Host Galaxy Properties

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    We present a first statistical sample of faint type-1 AGNs at z>4z>4 identified by JWST/NIRSpec deep spectroscopy. Among the 185 galaxies at zspec=3.88.9z_\mathrm{spec}=3.8-8.9 confirmed with NIRSpec, our systematic search for broad-line emission reveals 10 type-1 AGNs at z=4.0156.936z=4.015-6.936 whose broad component is only seen in the permitted Hα\alpha line and not in the forbidden [OIII]λ\lambda5007 line that is detected with greater significance than Hα\alpha. The broad Hα\alpha line widths of $\mathrm{FWHM}\simeq1000-6000\ \mathrm{km\ s^{-1}}suggestthattheAGNshavelowmassblackholeswith suggest that the AGNs have low-mass black holes with M_\mathrm{BH}\sim10^6-10^8\ M_\odot,remarkablylowerthanthoseoflowluminosityquasarspreviouslyidentifiedat, remarkably lower than those of low-luminosity quasars previously identified at z>4withgroundbasedtelescopes.JWSTandHSThighresolutionimagesrevealthatthemajorityofthemshowextendedmorphologiesindicatingsignificantcontributiontothetotallightsfromtheirhostgalaxies,exceptforthreecompactobjectstwoofwhichshowredSEDs,probablyinatransitionphasefromfaintAGNstolowluminosityquasars.CarefulAGNhostdecompositionanalysesshowthattheirhostsstellarmassesaresystematicallylowerthanthelocalrelationbetweentheblackholemassandthestellarmass,implyingafastblackholegrowthconsistentwithpredictionsfromtheoreticalsimulations.AhighfractionofthebroadlineAGNs( with ground-based telescopes. JWST and HST high-resolution images reveal that the majority of them show extended morphologies indicating significant contribution to the total lights from their host galaxies, except for three compact objects two of which show red SEDs, probably in a transition phase from faint AGNs to low luminosity quasars. Careful AGN-host decomposition analyses show that their host's stellar masses are systematically lower than the local relation between the black hole mass and the stellar mass, implying a fast black hole growth consistent with predictions from theoretical simulations. A high fraction of the broad-line AGNs (\sim5\%),higherthan), higher than z\sim0,indicatesthatanumberdensityofsuchfaintAGNsishigherthananextrapolationofthequasarluminosityfunction,implyingalargepopulationofAGNsincludingtype1andtype2intheearlyuniverse.SuchfaintAGNscontributetocosmicreionization,whilethetotalcontributionisnotlarge,upto, indicates that a number density of such faint AGNs is higher than an extrapolation of the quasar luminosity function, implying a large population of AGNs including type 1 and type 2 in the early universe. Such faint AGNs contribute to cosmic reionization, while the total contribution is not large, up to \sim50\%at at z\sim6$, because of their faint nature.Comment: 24 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in Ap

    A Comprehensive Study on Galaxies at z~9-17 Found in the Early JWST Data: UV Luminosity Functions and Cosmic Star-Formation History at the Pre-Reionization Epoch

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    We conduct a comprehensive study on dropout galaxy candidates at z917z\sim 9-17 using the first 90 arcmin2^2 JWST/NIRCam images taken by the early release observations (ERO) and early release science (ERS) programs. With the JWST simulation images, we find that a number of foreground interlopers are selected with a weak photo-zz determination (Δχ2>4\Delta \chi^2>4). We thus carefully apply a secure photo-zz selection criterion (Δχ2>9\Delta \chi^2>9) and conventional color criteria with confirmations of the ERO NIRSpec spectroscopic redshifts, and obtain a total of 25 dropout galaxies at z917z\sim 9-17, including two candidates at zphot=16.450.32+0.09z_\mathrm{phot}=16.45_{-0.32}^{+0.09} and 16.660.34+1.8616.66_{-0.34}^{+1.86}. We perform thorough comparisons of dropout galaxies found in our work with recent JWST studies, and conclude that our galaxy sample is reliable enough for statistical analyses. We derive the UV luminosity functions at z917z\sim 9-17, and confirm that our UV luminosity functions at z9z\sim 9 and 1212 agree with those determined by previous HST and JWST studies. The cosmic star-formation rate density decreases from z9z\sim 9 to 1212, and perhaps to 1717, but the densities at z1217z\sim12-17 are higher than the constant star formation efficiency model. Interestingly, there are six bright galaxy candidates at z1117z\sim 11-17 with MUV<19.5M_{\rm UV}<-19.5 whose stellar masses are very high, 1089M10^{8-9} M_\odot. Because a majority (70%\sim 70\%) of these galaxies shows no signatures of AGNs in their morphologies, the high cosmic star-formation rate densities and the existence of these stellar massive galaxies are explained by no suppression of star-formation by the UV background radiation at the pre-reionization epoch or an efficient UV radiation production by Population III-like star formation.Comment: 36 pages, 19 figures. Submitted to ApJS. Comments welcom
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