29 research outputs found

    MEMBRANE MARKER SENSORY STRATEGY (MMSS) IS A NEW CONCEPT IN CANCER THERAPY: A HYPOTHESIS

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    Cancer, the group of diseases, is characterized by an abnormal cell growth and function, thus the complications in physiological homeostasis. Although, not all tumors are cancerous, but after a certain time/biological events they may turn into cancer. That means, it is always a risk to continue with any type of tumor. Over 100 cancers are affecting human are detected till date. Treatments belong to the types and stages of cancers along with the areas (physiological). However, there is no single cancer therapy, which is free from side effects. Additionally, complications in cellular targeting and therapy-induced second cancer are also evident. Combination treatments are also used in some cases, despite the possibility of immunosuppression and a bundle of unavoidable events. Otherwise, cancer treatment in advanced stages and metastasize are yet being considered. Therefore, scientists are always in search for a new and effective mode of cancer treatment, so that they may ensure less or even no side effects with a promising survival rate. In fact, the economy, safety, and effectiveness are the deemed query of both the patients and physicians. Among the others, the markers coming from the changed cell membrane of a cancerous cell may be good sources to ligand targeting, as these are the basic differentiating matter between a normal and cancer cell. In this hypothesis, the membrane marker sensory strategy is going to be introduced theoretically for the first time may be an alternative and effective mode of cancer treatment

    CRUCIAL CHALLENGES IN EPIGENETIC CANCER THERAPEUTIC STRATEGY YET TO BE RESOLVED

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    Cancer is considered by both genetic and epigenetic pathways. Although, genetic pathways are straightforward, but the reversibility and numerous unclear talks make epigenetic pathway complicated. DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated gene silencing are the three known consequences in epigenetic alterations. In this context, small ncRNAs such as microRNA are known to regulate various components of cellular epigenetic machinery by up or down-regulating in pathogenesis; those are already known in a number of pathophysiological states. These types of biomarkers can be used in the diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in some instances. Although some epigenetic therapies have been introduced, but a number of challenges in each case are remarkable, encouraging more researchers in this field of novel strategy. This paper will discuss a short note on epigenetics and epigenetic therapeutic interventions along with crucial challenges yet to be resolved

    CANAL DISH (CD), THE NEW ANTIMICROBIAL TESTING APPARATUS

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    Objective: This writing aims to introduce new antimicrobial test apparatus called Canal Dish (CD), theoretically.Methods: We have designed two types of CD such as Circular CD (CCD) and Square CD (SCD). Internally, the CCD is a 80 mm diameter circular while the SCD is a 80×80 mm square CD plate. Both of them contain 2(40×2) mm parallel travelling canals from the each CD-centre having radius of 3 mm. Canals are 6 mm in depth.Results: The features of CCD and SCD indicate possible allowance of various size, low media consuming, the inclusion of multiple microorganisms and/or test samples/doses, ease of handling; therefore, understanding, rapidity, and economy.Conclusion: CD may replace currently used Petri dishes due to its cost-effectiveness, rapidity, ease of handling and a wider range of applicability.Keywords: Antimicrobial assay, Canal dish, Circular, Square, New apparatu

    MACERATION-VORTEX-TECHNIQUE (MVT), A RAPID AND NEW EXTRACTION METHOD IN PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING

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    Extraction is a process of preparation of extracts from biological materials (plant/animal/microorganism) in the essence of drug discovery and development scienticism. This writing is aimed at proposing a new, rapid, economical and easy extraction method, Maceration-Vortex-Technique (MVT). For this 2-5 g of powdered materials is sucked into 5-10 ml of solvent recommended for extraction. A cleaned, small amber-colored glass bottle of 20-25 ml capacity is needed for this purpose. Powdered materials are mixed with the solvent, then followed by shaking vigorously; shaken for 1.5-2 h and vortexed for 5 min. The extract is collected by immediate filtration through filter paper (Whatmann no. 1) and allowed for concentration and/or solvent partitioning. The MVT allows a 3 h extraction of plant materials. A small amount of extraction material is needed along with a small quantity of solvent which is a marker for the economy of this extraction process. In conclusion, rapidity in the extraction process is the rapidity in the screening process of biological materials. The MVT may be one of the speediest and most economical extraction processes.Keywords: Extraction, Maceration-Vortex-Technique, New method, Phyto-pharmacological screenin

    COFFEE: A HEALTH FUEL-BLOT POPULAR DRINKING

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    Now, the days begin with cups of coffee worldwide. Caffeine is the main component of coffee, which is vastly consumed as a psychoactive agent, and in varieties of dietary supplements. Day by day coffee and caffeinated-consumption areas are expanding. Only a single cup of coffee contains thousands of biochemical. Otherwise, during roasting, some of which turn to convert other chemicals moieties. Thus, the coffee is an interesting item to the drug scientists. Upon this jackpot, a number of researches have been done on coffee and its chemical components; in which many postulations are still in contentious and some are unclear to the coffee users. Upon going through the stand-point, this study has been snapshot to sketch a complete overview on coffee and its components. Our finding depicts constituents of coffee to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-Parkinson's disease, and cardioprotective activities. But the anti-cancerous effect of coffee components is not clear yet. In conclusion, coffee, and its constituents are in important in phytopharmacological research.Keywords: Coffee, Coffee components, Health-effect

    Possible oxidative effects of isotretinoin and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Isotretinoin (ITN), chemically known as 13-cis-retinoic acid, is a part of the broad group of compounds related to vitamin A. It is particularly employed in the treatment of nodular cystic acne and as an inhibitor of proliferation of neoplastic cells, by exerting a regulatory effect on the cell differentiation. This study aimed at investigating the possible oxidative effects of ITN and modulatory effects of vitamins A and C in mutant and non-mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. In addition, to reconfirm the oxidative effects, five in vitro antioxidant assays were also prepared taking the alpha-tocopherol analogue, trolox as a standard. In vivo study conducted on S. cerevisiae cells was carried out with ITN 20 μg/ml taking hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as stressor (STR), whereas ITN 5 to 50 μg/ml was considered for in vitro assays taking similar dose of trolox (TRO). Results show ITN to have oxidative effect in both in vitro and in vivo tests. In conclusion, ITN produced oxidative effects and there may be an hypervitaminosis effect with vitamins A and C, thus insinuation to genetic material.Key words: Assay, isotretinoin, vitamin A, vitamin C, oxidative stress

    Correlations between Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and Genetic Instability in Cancer Patients- A Clinical Perspective Study

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    This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.Molecular epidemiological studies have identified several risk factors linking to the genes and external factors in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. In this sense, genetic instability caused by DNA damage and DNA repair inefficiencies are important molecular events for the diagnosis and prognosis of therapies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze correlation between sociocultural, occupational, and lifestyle risk factors with levels of genetic instability in non-neoplastic cells of breast cancer patients. Total 150 individuals were included in the study that included 50 breast cancer patients submitted to chemotherapy (QT), 50 breast cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy (RT), and 50 healthy women without any cancer. Cytogenetic biomarkers for apoptosis and DNA damage were evaluated in samples of buccal epithelial and peripheral blood cells through micronuclei and comet assay tests. Elder age patients (61–80 years) had higher levels of apoptosis (catriolysis by karyolysis) and DNA damage at the diagnosis (baseline damage) with increased cell damage during QT and especially during RT. We also reported the increased frequencies of cytogenetic biomarkers in patients who were exposed to ionizing radiation as well as for alcoholism and smoking. QT and RT induced high levels of fragmentation (karyorrhexis) and nuclear dissolution (karyolysis) and DNA damage. Correlations were observed between age and karyorrhexis at diagnosis; smoking and karyolysis during RT; and radiation and karyolysis during QT. These correlations indicate that risk factors may also influence the genetic instability in non-neoplastic cells caused to the patients during cancer therapies

    Phytol: A review of biomedical activities

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    © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ This author accepted manuscript is made available following 12 month embargo from date of publication (Auguist 2018) in accordance with the publisher’s archiving policyPhytol (PYT) is a diterpene member of the long-chain unsaturated acyclic alcohols. PYT and some of its derivatives, including phytanic acid (PA), exert a wide range of biological effects. PYT is a valuable essential oil (EO) used as a fragrance and a potential candidate for a broad range of applications in the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industry. There is ample evidence that PA may play a crucial role in the development of pathophysiological states. Focusing on PYT and some of its most relevant derivatives, here we present a systematic review of reported biological activities, along with their underlying mechanism of action. Recent investigations with PYT demonstrated anxiolytic, metabolism-modulating, cytotoxic, antioxidant, autophagy- and apoptosis-inducing, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulating, and antimicrobial effects. PPARs- and NF-κB-mediated activities are also discussed as mechanisms responsible for some of the bioactivities of PYT. The overall goal of this review is to discuss recent findings pertaining to PYT biological activities and its possible applications

    Anticancer Activity of Genistin: A Short Review

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    Genistein is an isoflavone glycoside that provides a variety of health advantages. The possibility of cancer chemopreventive drugs derived from natural sources, such as polyphenols, may constitute a novel, cost-effective strategy to reduce the rising burden of cancer throughout the world. A soy-rich diet was linked to cancer prevention in several epidemiological studies, which was explained by the presence of the phenolic component genistein in soy-based foods. Inhibiting metastasis and changing apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis are the key ways that genistin fights various cancers. It acts as a chemotherapeutic agent against different types of cancer, mainly by altering apoptosis, the cell cycle, and angiogenesis and inhibiting metastasis. This study critically evaluates the literature that is currently available on the therapeutic benefits of genistin for various cancers

    Anxiolytic-<i>like</i> Effects by <i>trans</i>-Ferulic Acid Possibly Occur through GABAergic Interaction Pathways

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    Numerous previous studies reported that ferulic acid exerts anxiolytic activity. However, the mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. The current study aimed to investigate the anxiolytic effect of trans-ferulic acid (TFA), a stereoisomer of ferulic acid, and evaluated its underlying mechanism using in vivo and computational studies. For this, different experimental doses of TFA (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) were administered orally to Swiss albino mice, and various behavioral methods of open field, hole board, swing box, and light–dark tests were carried out. Diazepam (DZP), a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, was employed as a positive control at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and distilled water served as a vehicle. Additionally, molecular docking was performed to estimate the binding affinities of the TFA and DZP toward the GABAA receptor subunits of α2 and α3, which are associated with the anxiolytic effect; visualizations of the ligand-receptor interaction were carried out using various computational tools. Our findings indicate that TFA dose-dependently reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in comparison with the controls, calming their behaviors. In addition, TFA exerted the highest binding affinity (−5.8 kcal/mol) to the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor by forming several hydrogen and hydrophobic bonds. Taken together, our findings suggest that TFA exerts a similar effect to DZP, and the compound exerts moderate anxiolytic activity through the GABAergic interaction pathway. We suggest further clinical studies to develop TFA as a reliable anxiolytic agent
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