52 research outputs found

    Monoclonal antibody: a cell specific immunotherapy to treat cancer

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    Fundamentally, the therapy technique which is utilized in malignancy immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies (mAb), is one of them, and it is used extensively as a treatment for the disease. To achieve more successful treatment, novel combination treatments and treatment procedures must be created. The purpose of this study is the improvement of mAb treatment and detail late advance and new limits, particularly in cancer therapy. With various keywords, we searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus for monoclonal antibody therapy as an alternate form of chemotherapy. The number of patients who received each therapy regimen, and the recovery rate are all displayed in this study, also a comparative study between monotherapy and chemotherapy. The result showed that rituximab had a greater overall response rate than other drugs, at 68%. In the combination treatment group (monotherapy+chemotherapy), 100% of patients had adverse events, compared to 84.2 percent in the monotherapy group. The pharmaceutical industry's fastest-growing medications, monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being examined in Clinical trials as stand-alone treatments or in conjunction with other therapies. It has a promising future since it will provide better tailored therapy and combination therapy for the treatment of cancer

    Application of Numerical Method in Assessing the Variations in Pile Group Efficiency under Different Circumstances

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    Rapid urbanization creates a demand to expand the cities where using pile foundation became a recurrent practice. To ensure sustainability of projects pile load tests are important but may not be always feasible in terms of costing, on-site constrains etc. In this circumstance numerical analysis is a good alternate to estimate precise pile load capacity rather than conventional conservative approaches. This research illustrates the pile group efficiency fluctuation due to pile diameter, spacing, pile number and orientation in prescribed sandy soils. Using the conventional method the individual pile capacities are calculated for a constant depth with variable diameters and soil profiles. For simulating the piles, geometric models of sandy soils with sufficient boundaries are generated in PLAXIS 3D FOUNDATION software where the parameters of pile and soil components are considered as per predetermined values from reliable references. The analysis results have thoroughly been scrutinized by plotting several graphs at different aspects. The outcomes indicate that the conventional pile spacing i.e. 2.5D to 3.5D has an insignificant effect on pile group efficiency, irrespective to pile diameter and soil type. It also exhibits that the increment of pile number significantly decreases pile group efficiency for diameters of 600mm, 800mm, 1000mm and 1200mm in sandy soils. With a few exceptions as the diameter of the pile increases, the group efficiency decreases. The arrangement of piles in group has minor impact on pile group efficiency which enhances onsite flexibility. It is expected that these outcomes will facilitate the practicing engineers for efficient solutions

    Particle formation and micronization using non-conventional techniques- review

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    Due to growing concerns regarding health, safety and the environment, non-conventional methods for particle formation and micronization that are either solvent-less or use environmentally acceptable solvents such as carbon dioxide have come into favor. Supercritical CO2 (sc CO2) (T > 31.1 'C, P > 7.3 MPa) has been used in food and pharmaceutical industries to minimize the use of organic solvents, produce new food products, produce environmentally superior food products and to process and micronize (0.1‚Äď5mm) pharmaceuticals. Control of particle size increases the dissolution rate of drugs into the body. Techniques that use sc CO2 eliminate inherent drawbacks of conventional methods such as thermal or mechanical degradation of the product, poor control of the particle size and morphology, lack of brittleness of some polymers and low encapsulation efficiency. Severaltechniques have been reported for the particle formation and micronization using supercritical fluids that have been successfully scaled up for commercial use. Supercritical CO2 has also been used to develop applications for medicines, essential oils, vitamins, food grade polymers, catalysts and pigments. This review highlights the process mechanism of supercritical fluid based techniques as well as some applications on particle formation and micronization

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study