93 research outputs found

    Gum Benzoin (Styrax benzoin) as Antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Gum benzoin (Styrax benzoin) is one of nontimber forest product classified into the resin group. The aim of the study was to determine the component from gum benzoin as an antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus. Indonesian gum benzoin was obtained from North Sumatra and has antibacterial activity against S. aureus with the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentrationo) values of its ethyl acetic extract of 1.00 mg/mL and 2.00 mg/mL, respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used in purification of ethyl acetate extract of the gum benzoin. The active component was detected by TLC contact bioautography. The bands with Rf of 0.21, 0.77, and 0.87 had growth inhibition activity to the S. aureus. The active antibacterial band with Rf of 0.21 was isolated and it could be an alkaloid component

    Medicinal Plants in East Sumba that Potential as Natural Dyes for Ikat Weaving

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    The revival of the natural dyes comes from an awareness of maintaining health and preserving the environment. Medicinal plants can be used as a source of the natural dyes. This study aimed to determine the medicinal plants in East Sumba Regency potentially exploited as a natural dye for ikat weaving. Plant data was obtained from Tana Tuku village and Mbatakapidu village in East Sumba Regency. A total 13 species of plants were extracted to dye cotton fabric and mordant by FeSO4 (ferrous sulphate), Al2(SO4)3 (alum) dan CaCO3 (lime). The intensity of color L*, a*, b* were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis test and Duncan post hoc test. The fastness of washing test analyzed by a gray color change scale and staining scale standard. The results showed that the ferrous sulphate mordant produced dark color and the alum mordant produced bright color. The intensity of red color was shown by Swietenia macropylla King and Leucaena leucocephala when it was mordanting by lime. The intensity of yellow color was shown by Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz with alum and Syzigium polyanthum with lime. The color change was not significant at 40 oC of washing shown by Tamarindus indica and Leucaena leucocephala mordanting by ferrous sulphate, Leucaena leucocephala, Bombax ceiba and Timonius timon mordanting by alum, Tamarindus indica, Leucaena leucocephala, Timonius timon mordanting with lime. All natural dyes did not stain the upholsteries

    Potensi Cendawan Xylaria sp. Sebagai Sumber Antioksidan

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     AbstrakPencegahan radikal bebas di dalam tubuh dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan antioksidan. Cendawan Xylaria memiliki kandungan senyawa bioaktif yang berasal dari metabolit sekunder yang berpotensi sebagai sumber antioksidan alami baru. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan potensi Xylaria sp. (strain F, D, C) sebagai sumber antioksidan melalui pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan dan kandungan total flavonoidnya. Cendawan ditumbuhkan pada media Potato Dextrose Yeast Extract Broth (PDYEB) dan diinkubasi 14 hari dengan kondisi gelap dan statis. Miselium cendawan digerus dengan bantuan nitrogen cair, kemudian ekstraksi dilakukan menggunakan pelarut metanol sebanyak dua kali ulangan. Penentuan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) dan kandungan total flavonoid ditentukan menggunakan metode alumunium klorida (AlCl3) yang dinyatakan ekuivalen kuersetin (QE). Seluruh sampel Xylaria sp. memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang lemah dan kandungan flavonoid yang juga rendah. Xylaria sp. strain F memiliki aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi sebesar 1915,14 ± 24,73 µg/mL dan Xylaria sp. strain D memiliki kandungan total flavonoid tertinggi sebesar 2,41 ± 0,09 mg QE/g ekstrak. Senyawa flavonoid pada sampel Xylaria sp. tidak menjadi senyawa utama yang menunjukkan aktivitas antioksidannya.AbstractPrevention of free radicals in the body can be done by using antioxidants. Xylaria fungus contains bioactive compounds derived from secondary metabolites that have the potential as a source of new natural antioxidants. This study aims to determine the potential of Xylaria sp. (strains F, D, C) as a source of antioxidants by measuring their antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. The fungus was grown on Potato Dextrose Yeast Extract Broth (PDYEB) and incubated for 14 days in dark and static conditions. The mycelium of the fungus was crushed with the help of liquid nitrogen, then the extraction was carried out using methanol as a solvent for two repetitions. Antioxidant activity was determined using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the total flavonoid content was determined using the alumunium chloride (AlCl3) method which is expressed as quercetin equivalent (QE). All samples of Xylaria sp. have the weakest antioxidant activity and lowest flavonoid content. Xylaria sp. strain F had the highest antioxidant activity of 1915,14 ± 24,73 µg/mL and Xylaria sp. strain D had the highest total flavonoid content of 2,41 ± 0,09 mg QE/g extract. The flavonoid compounds in the sample Xylaria sp. did not become the main compound showing antioxidant activity

    Increasing Growth Rate and Production of Bioactive Compounds Curcuminoid and Xanthorrhizol in Javanese Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) Rhizomes with Biso Zyme Application

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    The bioactive compounds from Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.), curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol, have been used to treat human diseases. This research aims to study the Javanese turmeric growth, its curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol content using Biso Zyme with different concentration and interval spraying. Biso Zyme is is conjugated enzyme concentrate (CEC) produced by yeast extracts that can be applied to the plant to increase and improve plant yields. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block factorial design with three replications. The concentrations of Biso Zyme were 0.0, 0.1, and 0.05 %, with monthly spraying intervals at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 months after planting (MAP). The results showed that the highest leaf area index was 2.71 cm2g-1  followed by leaf area ratio which was 66.47 cm2.g-1 with 0.1% Biso Zyme application. Relative growth rate was 0.048 g.day-1while net assimilation rate was 0.00092 g.cm-2.day-1 without Biso Zyme application. The highest fresh and dry weight was those treated with 0.05% Biso Zyme applied at 4 to 5 MAP, i.e., 444.44 g and 68.72 g, respectively. The highest curcuminoid and xanthorrhizol contents were 0.435% and 1.505%, respectively, with 0.05% Biso Zyme spraying interval at 4 to 5 MAP, and 0.1%  Biso Zyme with sprayed at 1 to 5 MAP. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis detected standard curcuminoid at Rf 0.23 and xanthorrhizol at Rf 0.66 with dichloromethane:chloroform eluents. Keywords: curcuminoid, Javanese turmeric, Leaf Area Index, organic fertilizer, xanthorrhizol

    Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Bioactive Compounds Against Six Protein Target of Sars-Cov-2 As Covid-19 Antivirus Candidates

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    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there has been no proven effective drug for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. A study on developing inhibitors for this virus was performed using molecular dynamics simulation. 3CL-Pro, PL-Pro, Helicase, N, E, and M protein were used as protein targets. This study aimed to determine the stability of the selected protein-ligand complex through molecular dynamics simulation by Amber20 to propose bioactive compounds from natural products that have potential as a drug for COVID-19. Based on our previous study, the best value of free binding energy and protein-ligand interactions of the candidate compounds are obtained for each target protein through molecular docking. Corilagin (-14.42 kcal/mol), Scutellarein 7-rutinoside (-13.2 kcal/mol), Genistein 7-O-glucuronide (-10.52 kcal/mol), Biflavonoid-flavone base + 3O (-11.88 and -9.61 kcal/mol), and Enoxolone (-6.96 kcal/mol) has the best free energy value at each protein target. In molecular dynamics simulation, the 3CL-Pro-Corilagin complex was the most stable compared to other complexes, so that it was the most recommended compound. Further research is needed to test the selected ligand activity, which has the lowest free energy value of the six target proteins

    Screening Marker Components Of Tyrosinase Inhibitor From Xylocarpus Granatum Stem

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    The aim of our research was to screen the marker components of tyrosinase inhibitor from Xylocarpus granatum stem collected from Pulau Sebuku, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.  The screening method started from selection of part of X. granatum, stem or stem bark.  Stem and stem bark of X. granatum were dried and grounded before submitted to methanol.  The stem extracts is more potent as tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 for monophenolase is 45.12 μg/ml and diphenolase is 31.59μg/ml) compared to the bark extracts. The IC50 values of kojic acid as positive control are 17.43μg/ml for monophenolase and 20.69 μg/ml for diphenolase. The stem extract then separated with silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography.  The results showed that component with Rf 0,25 and 0.63 (TLC analysis with stationary phase silica gel GF254 and mobile phase ethyl acetic: methanol (8:2)) are the marker components as tyrosinase inhibitor for X. granatum

    Perubahan Pola Kromatografi Lapis Tipis Ekstrak Daun dan Batang Teh (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) yang Menjadi Inang bagi 3 Benalu Berbeda

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    Plants produce primary and secondary metabolite compounds depending on their growth conditions. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze that hosts Loranthus produces different metabolites compared to those not hosting. This study aims to determine the change in the thin layer chromatography pattern (TLC) of leaf and stem tea extract that is the host 3 types of Loranthus tea namely Loranthus atropurpureus, Loranthus cochinchinensis, and Loranthus pentandrus. Leaf and stem tea extracts that host 3 types of Loranthus were separated using TLC with stationary phase of silica gel 60 F254 and the mobile phase of DCM: MeOH: n-hex (48:1:1). Separation results was detected using UV lamps 254 and 366 nm. The changes of the band's area of each extract were determined using software ImageJ. The results showed a change in TLC patterns. The declining band's area was found in bands detected at 366 nm for the host's stem and tea leaves. The increasing band's areawere found on bands detected at 254 nm especially on tea leaves that host. In conclusion, the change in TLC pattern can be used to determine the compounds that change due to tea plants to host and can be alternative utilization

    Virtual Screening of Natural Compounds Against Six Protein Receptors Coded by The SARS-CoV-2 Genome

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    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there has been no proven effective drug for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19. A study on developing inhibitors for this virus is carried out using molecular docking simulation methods. 3CL-Pro, PL-Pro, Helicase, N, E, and M protein were used as protein targets. Autodock Vina, Autodock 4.2, and PSOVina were used in this study. This study aims to obtain a model of ligands interactions of active natural compounds against the receptor protein encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 genome and their free binding energy to propose active compounds from natural products that have potential as a drug for COVID-19. Corilagin (-14,42 kcal/mol), Scutellarein 7-rutinoside (-13,2 kcal/mol), Genistein 7-O-glucuronide (-10,52 kcal/mol), Biflavonoid-flavone base + 3O (-11,88 and -9,61 kcal/mol), and Enoxolone (-6,96 kcal/mol) has the best free energy value at each protein target indicating that the compound has the potential as a viral protein inhibitor for further investigation. This research is limited to computer simulations, where the results obtained are still a prediction
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