219 research outputs found

    Discovery of Seven Companions To Intermediate-Mass Stars With Extreme Mass Ratios in the Scorpius-Centaurus Association

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    We report the detection of seven low-mass companions to intermediate-mass stars (SpT B/A/F; M similar to 1.5-4.5M(circle dot)) in the Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) Association using nonredundant aperture masking interferometry. Our newly detected objects have contrasts Delta L' approximate to 4-6, corresponding to masses as low as similar to 20 M-Jup and mass ratios of q approximate to 0.01-0.08, depending on the assumed age of the target stars. With projected separations rho approximate to 10-30 AU, our aperture masking detections sample an orbital region previously unprobed by conventional adaptive optics imaging of intermediate-mass Sco-Cen stars covering much larger orbital radii (similar to 30-3000 AU). At such orbital separations, these objects resemble higher-mass versions of the directly imaged planetary mass companions to the 10-30 Myr, intermediate-mass stars HR 8799, beta Pictoris, and HD 95086. These newly discovered companions span the brown dwarf desert, and their masses and orbital radii provide a new constraint on models of the Formation of low-mass stellar and substellar companions to intermediate-mass stars.NASA through the Sagan Fellowship ProgramNSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship AST-1203023Clay FellowshipNASA through Hubble Fellowship 51257.01AURA, Inc., for NASA NAS 5-26555W. M. Keck FoundationAstronom

    Duration of tooth alignment with fixed appliances: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    INTRODUCTION A key goal of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is alignment of the dentition, and this remains a commonly selected outcome in clinical studies investigating orthodontic tooth movement. This systematic review has evaluated treatment duration to achieve alignment of the mandibular dentition using fixed appliances. METHODS Systematic literature searches without restrictions were undertaken in 9 databases for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing duration and rate of tooth alignment using fixed appliances with or without treatment adjuncts published up to January 2021. After duplicate study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to Cochrane, random-effects meta-analyses of aggregate data, and individual patient data were conducted. RESULTS Thirty-five trials were included with 2258 participants (39% male; mean age 17.8 years), giving a pooled duration to achieve whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition of 263.0 days (4 trials; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186.7-339.4 days) and incisor alignment in the mandibular arch of 100.7 days (9 trials; 95% CI, 84.1-117.4 days). Surgical-assisted orthodontics was associated with reduced duration of incisor alignment: mean difference of 44.3 days less (4 trials; 95% CI, 20.0-68.9 days; P <0.001; high quality of evidence), whereas subgroup and meta-regression analyses indicated significant effects of baseline crowding and premolar extractions. Individual patient data analysis from 3 RCTs indicated that for each additional participant age year, whole-arch alignment of the mandibular dentition took 13.7 days longer (3 trials; 95% CI, 7.7-17.7 days; P <0.001) and for each additional mm of irregularity, 17.5 days more were needed (2 trials; 95% CI, 9.8-25.2 days; P <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patient and treatment-related characteristics can significantly affect the duration of tooth alignment and should be taken into account both clinically and when designing trial outcomes. Future research studies investigating rates of orthodontic tooth alignment would benefit from adequate sample sizes and a more consistent methodology in outcome assessment. Data in this systematic review provides a basis for appropriate trial design for future RCTs investigating the rate of orthodontic tooth alignment with fixed appliances

    Characterising encapsulated nuclear waste using cosmic-ray muon tomography

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    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons have been shown previously to successfully identify and characterise low- and high-Z materials within an air matrix using a prototype scintillating-fibre tracker system. Those studies were performed as the first in a series to assess the feasibility of this technology and image reconstruction techniques in characterising the potential high-Z contents of legacy nuclear waste containers for the UK Nuclear Industry. The present work continues the feasibility study and presents the first images reconstructed from experimental data collected using this small-scale prototype system of low- and high-Z materials encapsulated within a concrete-filled stainless-steel container. Clear discrimination is observed between the thick steel casing, the concrete matrix and the sample materials assayed. These reconstructed objects are presented and discussed in detail alongside the implications for future industrial scenarios.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure
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