297 research outputs found

    Budget Balance through Revenue or Spending Adjustment: Evidence from Pakistan

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    Government cannot roll over the debt forever (ponzi game is not allowed). In the long run, inter-temporal budget constraint has to be satisfied, which is possible either through government spending adjustment or increasing government revenues. So current budget deficit calls for adjustment, in the future, in spending or revenues. There are four hypotheses, in the literature, in this regard: the tax-and-spending hypothesis, the spending-and-tax hypothesis, bi-directional causality between government revenues and government expenditures, and independence of taxes and expenditures hypothesis. The last hypothesis, however, have negative implications, in the long run, in terms of debt sustainability and inflatio

    Impact of capital structure on profitability in the manufacturing and non-manufacturing industries of Pakistan

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    This study motives to analyze and understand the association between capital structure and profitability and the fastidious to measure their significance in manufacturing and non manufacturing industries of Pakistan. The paper adopts a quantitative data of different manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations in Pakistan. The financial statements were analyzed of manufacturing and non manufacturing organizations of Pakistan for the period of 2008-2013. The study reveals the fact, profitability and debt in manufacturing and non manufacturing industry is an insignificant relationship and a strong positive link between profitability and debt. The population of the study is a Manufacturing and Non-Manufacturing industry of Pakistan and units of analysis is D.G Cement factory and AGTL from Manufacturing industry and, HBL & Bank Al-Falah from Non-Manufacturing industry. In this paper descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. It is proved that manufacturing industry has found a strong negative regression between debts and profit and the non-manufacturing has found a strong positive regression between debt and profit