3,989 research outputs found

    W/Z boson production in muonic final states at the ATLAS experiment

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    W and Z boson production has been investigated by the ATLAS Collaboration in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. New preliminary precision measurements of the inclusive Dell-Yan cross sections based on the complete data statistics collected in 2010, corresponding to a luminosity of about 35 pb−1, are presented, with particular emphasis on the muon decay channels. The accurate control on experimental systematic uncertainties, at the percent level, shows advanced understanding of the muon trigger and reconstruction achieved after the first year of data taking at the LHC. The measured W± and Z/γ∗ cross sections, and their ratios, are in agreement with next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) QCD calculations and start to be sensitive to the choice of the parton distribution functions

    Influence of the disorder on tracer dispersion in a flow channel

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    Tracer dispersion is studied experimentally in periodic or disordered arrays of beads in a capillary tube. Dispersion is measured from light absorption variations near the outlet following a steplike injection of dye at the inlet. Visualizations using dye and pure glycerol are also performed in similar geometries. Taylor dispersion is dominant both in an empty tube and for a periodic array of beads: the dispersivity l_dl\_d increases with the P\'eclet number PePe respectively as PePe and Pe0.82Pe^{0.82} and is larger by a factor of 8 in the second case. In a disordered packing of smaller beads (1/3 of the tube diameter) geometrical dispersion associated to the disorder of the flow field is dominant with a constant value of l_dl\_d reached at high P\'eclet numbers. The minimum dispersivity is slightly higher than in homogeneous nonconsolidated packings of small grains, likely due heterogeneities resulting from wall effects. In a disordered packing with the same beads as in the periodic configuration, l_dl\_d is up to 20 times lower than in the latter and varies as PeαPe^\alpha with α=0.5\alpha = 0.5 or =0.69= 0.69 (depending on the fluid viscosity). A simple model accounting for this latter result is suggested.Comment: available online at http://www.edpsciences.org/journal/index.cfm?edpsname=epjap&niv1=contents&niv2=archive

    Nonlinear diffusion & thermo-electric coupling in a two-variable model of cardiac action potential

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    This work reports the results of the theoretical investigation of nonlinear dynamics and spiral wave breakup in a generalized two-variable model of cardiac action potential accounting for thermo-electric coupling and diffusion nonlinearities. As customary in excitable media, the common Q10 and Moore factors are used to describe thermo-electric feedback in a 10-degrees range. Motivated by the porous nature of the cardiac tissue, in this study we also propose a nonlinear Fickian flux formulated by Taylor expanding the voltage dependent diffusion coefficient up to quadratic terms. A fine tuning of the diffusive parameters is performed a priori to match the conduction velocity of the equivalent cable model. The resulting combined effects are then studied by numerically simulating different stimulation protocols on a one-dimensional cable. Model features are compared in terms of action potential morphology, restitution curves, frequency spectra and spatio-temporal phase differences. Two-dimensional long-run simulations are finally performed to characterize spiral breakup during sustained fibrillation at different thermal states. Temperature and nonlinear diffusion effects are found to impact the repolarization phase of the action potential wave with non-monotone patterns and to increase the propensity of arrhythmogenesis

    Letter to the editor : management of patients with Ebola virus disease in Europe : high-level isolation units should have a key role

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    In the past, the rare imported cases of Ebola and Marburg in western European countries and the United States were managed in high-level isolation units (HLIUs). Subsequently, reported experiences indicate that strict contact-droplet isolation is enough for preventing transmission. From this hypothesis, the idea may derive that HLIUs are not strictly necessary for the management of EVD patients, who may be safely managed in non-specialised hospitals, as suggested by some international recommendations elaborated during the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Even if we concur that strict contact-droplet isolation is enough to prevent transmission during routine care, we believe that HLIUs should have a key role in EVD containment in countries where such facilities are available. An HLIU is a healthcare facility specifically designed to provide safe, secure, high-quality, and appropriate care, with optimal infection containment and infection prevention and control procedures, for a single patient or a small number of patients who have, or who may have, a highly infectious disease.peer-reviewe

    A feasibility study for a circular approach in oil refining: Metals recovery from hydrodesulphurization catalysts

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    The paper deals with a profitability analysis developed for a plant that recycles spent hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts. Such catalysts contain molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), and vanadium (V), supported by an alumina (Al2O3) carrier. The recycling process is based on a double thermal pre-treatment stage, followed by a series of hydrometallurgical steps that allow recovering Mo and V and a Ni concentrate that need further refining for separation and recovery of the metals. The economic analysis is based on the discounted cash flow method, and the baseline case analyses show that the net present value (NPV) is 14,877 thousand EUR. The selling price of vanadium pentoxide strongly influences the results. Alternative scenarios are also studied to strengthen the results obtained, considering the sensitivity, scenario and risk analyses. Profitability is confirmed in 87% of the considered scenarios, and in about 81.5%, the NPV of the baseline scenario is achieved. Circular economy models can be realized if products are recovered and if there are technologies that can recover metals. This study confirms that an example of a circular economy is met from the proposed viability analysis, and the economic benefits can be significant

    Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot

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    Through the utilization of index-matched GaAs immersion lens techniques we demonstrate a record extinction (12%) of a far-field focused laser by a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot. This contrast level enables us to report for the first time resonant laser transmission spectroscopy on a single InAs/GaAs quantum dot without the need for phase-sensitive lock-in detection

    On attributes of a Rotating Neutron star with a Hyperon core

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    We study the effect of rotation on global properties of neutron star with a hyperon core in an effective chiral model with varying nucleon effective mass within a mean field approach. The resulting gross properties of the rotating compact star sequences are then compared and analyzed with other theoretical predictions and observations from neutron stars. The maximum mass of the compact star predicted by the model lies in the range (1.4−2.4) M⊙(1.4-2.4) ~M_{\odot} at Kepler frequency ΩK\Omega_K, which is consistant with recent observation of high mass stars thereby reflecting the sensitivity of the underlying nucleon effective mass in the dense matter EoS. We also discuss the implications of the experimental constraints from the flow data from heavy-ion collisions on the global properties of the rotating neutron stars.Comment: 11 Pages, 10 Figures and 2 Table

    The Role of Alpha Oscillations among the Main Neuropsychiatric Disorders in the Adult and Developing Human Brain: Evidence from the Last 10 Years of Research

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    Alpha oscillations (7–13 Hz) are the dominant rhythm in both the resting and active brain. Accordingly, translational research has provided evidence for the involvement of aberrant alpha activ- ity in the onset of symptomatological features underlying syndromes such as autism, schizophrenia, major depression, and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, findings on the matter are difficult to reconcile due to the variety of paradigms, analyses, and clinical phenotypes at play, not to mention recent technical and methodological advances in this domain. Herein, we seek to address this issue by reviewing the literature gathered on this topic over the last ten years. For each neuropsychiatric disorder, a dedicated section will be provided, containing a concise account of the current models proposing characteristic alterations of alpha rhythms as a core mechanism to trigger the associated symptomatology, as well as a summary of the most relevant studies and scientific con- tributions issued throughout the last decade. We conclude with some advice and recommendations that might improve future inquiries within this field

    Accuracy of EEG Biomarkers in the Detection of Clinical Outcome in Disorders of Consciousness after Severe Acquired Brain Injury: Preliminary Results of a Pilot Study Using a Machine Learning Approach

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    Accurate outcome detection in neuro-rehabilitative settings is crucial for appropriate long-term rehabilitative decisions in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). EEG measures derived from high-density EEG can provide helpful information regarding diagnosis and recovery in DoC patients. However, the accuracy rate of EEG biomarkers to predict the clinical outcome in DoC patients is largely unknown. This study investigated the accuracy of psychophysiological biomarkers based on clinical EEG in predicting clinical outcomes in DoC patients. To this aim, we extracted a set of EEG biomarkers in 33 DoC patients with traumatic and nontraumatic etiologies and estimated their accuracy to discriminate patients' etiologies and predict clinical outcomes 6 months after the injury. Machine learning reached an accuracy of 83.3% (sensitivity = 92.3%, specificity = 60%) with EEG-based functional connectivity predicting clinical outcome in nontraumatic patients. Furthermore, the combination of functional connectivity and dominant frequency in EEG activity best predicted clinical outcomes in traumatic patients with an accuracy of 80% (sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 71.4%). These results highlight the importance of functional connectivity in predicting recovery in DoC patients. Moreover, this study shows the high translational value of EEG biomarkers both in terms of feasibility and accuracy for the assessment of DoC
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