4,313 research outputs found

    Expectations for first single-top studies in CMS proton-proton collisions

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    We report on the expectations for first single top studies at the LHC with the CMS experiment. The Standard Model predicts the production of single top quark through three electroweak processes at LHC, referred to as t, s and tW channels. The t-channel has the highest cross section and the most potential for early observation. We describe the search strategy for the t-channel applied on a Monte Carlo sample at 10TeV p-p collision energy with an integrated luminosity of 200 pb−1 and on the expectations for the search of single top t-channel in the 7TeV scenario

    The search for the single top at the LHC

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    We report on the predictions of the Standard Model for the single top-quark production at LHC and on the analysis strategies adopted by CMS and ATLAS for the single top-quark search. The Standard Model predicts the production of single top quark through three electroweak processes in the LHC energy reach, referred to as t, s and tW channels, resulting in distinct topologies and backgrounds. Different analysis strategies to search for the single top have been developed by CMS and ATLAS experiments. For the 14TeV center-of-mass energy scenario all the channels have been considered, while for the 10TeV scenario a specific strategy has been developed only for the t-channel and has been applied on Monte Carlo samples assuming an integrated luminosity of 200 pb−1

    Gravitomagnetism and the Speed of Gravity

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    Experimental discovery of the gravitomagnetic fields generated by translational and/or rotational currents of matter is one of primary goals of modern gravitational physics. The rotational (intrinsic) gravitomagnetic field of the Earth is currently measured by the Gravity Probe B. The present paper makes use of a parametrized post-Newtonian (PN) expansion of the Einstein equations to demonstrate how the extrinsic gravitomagnetic field generated by the translational current of matter can be measured by observing the relativistic time delay caused by a moving gravitational lens. We prove that measuring the extrinsic gravitomagnetic field is equivalent to testing relativistic effect of the aberration of gravity caused by the Lorentz transformation of the gravitational field. We unfold that the recent Jovian deflection experiment is a null-type experiment testing the Lorentz invariance of the gravitational field (aberration of gravity), thus, confirming existence of the extrinsic gravitomagnetic field associated with orbital motion of Jupiter with accuracy 20%. We comment on erroneous interpretations of the Jovian deflection experiment given by a number of researchers who are not familiar with modern VLBI technique and subtleties of JPL ephemeris. We propose to measure the aberration of gravity effect more accurately by observing gravitational deflection of light by the Sun and processing VLBI observations in the geocentric frame with respect to which the Sun is moving with velocity 30 km/s.Comment: 16 pages, no figure

    Phenomenology of the Lense-Thirring effect in the Solar System

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    Recent years have seen increasing efforts to directly measure some aspects of the general relativistic gravitomagnetic interaction in several astronomical scenarios in the solar system. After briefly overviewing the concept of gravitomagnetism from a theoretical point of view, we review the performed or proposed attempts to detect the Lense-Thirring effect affecting the orbital motions of natural and artificial bodies in the gravitational fields of the Sun, Earth, Mars and Jupiter. In particular, we will focus on the evaluation of the impact of several sources of systematic uncertainties of dynamical origin to realistically elucidate the present and future perspectives in directly measuring such an elusive relativistic effect.Comment: LaTex, 51 pages, 14 figures, 22 tables. Invited review, to appear in Astrophysics and Space Science (ApSS). Some uncited references in the text now correctly quoted. One reference added. A footnote adde

    Mass Screening in Modified Gravity

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    Models of modified gravity introduce extra degrees of freedom, which for consistency with the data, should be suppressed at observable scales. In the models that share properties of massive gravity such a suppression is due to nonlinear interactions: An isolated massive astrophysical object creates a halo of a nonzero curvature around it, shielding its vicinity from the influence of the extra degrees of freedom. We emphasize that the very same halo leads to a screening of the gravitational mass of the object, as seen by an observer beyond the halo. We discuss the case when the screening could be very significant and may rule out, or render the models observationally interesting.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures, A contribution to the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cosmology and Gravitation, Peyresq 12, June 16-22, 2007, Peyresq, Franc

    Gravitomagnetism and Relative Observer Clock Effects

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    The gravitomagnetic clock effect and the Sagnac effect for circularly rotating orbits in stationary axisymmetric spacetimes are studied from a relative observer point of view, clarifying their relationships and the roles played by special observer families. In particular Semer\'ak's recent characterization of extremely accelerated observers in terms of the two-clock clock effect is shown to be complemented by a similarly special property of the single-clock clock effect.Comment: 19 pages, LaTeX, IOP macros with package epsf and 1 eps figure, to appear in Classical and Quantum Gravity, slight revisio

    Efficacy of hemostatic powders as monotherapy or rescue therapy in gastrointestinal bleeding related to neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions

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    Background Hemostatic powder (HP) in gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is mainly used as rescue therapy after failure of conventional hemostatic procedures (CHP). Aim To define the best field of application and the efficacy of HP as first choice monotherapy or rescue therapy. Methods We compared the efficacy of HP monotherapy, HP rescue therapy, and CHP in the management of active GIB due to neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Results A total of 108 patients, 43 treated with HP as either first choice or rescue therapy and 65 with CHP, were included in the study. The most frequent sources of bleeding were peptic ulcer and malignancy. Immediate hemostasis rates were: HP monotherapy = 100% in peptic ulcer and 100% in malignancy; HP rescue therapy = 93.2% in peptic ulcer and 85.7% in malignancy; CHP = 77.9% in peptic ulcer and 41.7 in malignancy. Definitive hemostasis rates were: HP monotherapy = 50% in peptic ulcer and 45.5% in malignancy; HP rescue therapy = 73.3% in peptic ulcer and 85.7% in malignancy; CHP = 69.1% in peptic ulcer and 33.3% in malignancy. No difference was found in terms of additional intervention between the three groups. Conclusions HP is highly effective as monotherapy and rescue therapy in GIB. GIB related to malignancy may be the best field of application of HP, but confirmatory studies are necessary

    Constraints from orbital motions around the Earth of the environmental fifth-force hypothesis for the OPERA superluminal neutrino phenomenology

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    It has been recently suggested by Dvali and Vikman that the superluminal neutrino phenomenology of the OPERA experiment may be due to an environmental feature of the Earth, naturally yielding a long-range fifth force of gravitational origin whose coupling with the neutrino is set by the scale M_*, in units of reduced Planck mass. Its characteristic length lambda should not be smaller than one Earth's radius R_e, while its upper bound is expected to be slightly smaller than the Earth-Moon distance (60 R_e). We analytically work out some orbital effects of a Yukawa-type fifth force for a test particle moving in the modified field of a central body. Our results are quite general since they are not restricted to any particular size of lambda; moreover, they are valid for an arbitrary orbital configuration of the particle, i.e. for any value of its eccentricity ee. We find that the dimensionless strength coupling parameter alpha is constrained to |alpha| <= 1 10^-10-4 10^-9 for 1 R_e <= lambda <= 10 R_e by the laser data of the Earth's artificial satellite LAGEOS II, corresponding to M_* >= 4 10^9 -1.6 10^10. The Moon perigee allows to obtain |alpha| <= 3 10^-11 for the Earth-Moon pair in the range 15 R_e <= lambda = 3 10^10 - 4.5 10^10. Our results are neither necessarily limited to the superluminal OPERA scenario nor to the Dvali-Vikman model, in which it is M_* = 10^-6 at lambda = 1 R_e, in contrast with our bounds: they generally extend to any theoretical scenario implying a fifth-force of Yukawa-type.Comment: LaTex2e, 18 pages, 4 figures, 1 table, 81 reference

    Milky Way Mass Models and MOND

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    Using the Tuorla-Heidelberg model for the mass distribution of the Milky Way, I determine the rotation curve predicted by MOND. The result is in good agreement with the observed terminal velocities interior to the solar radius and with estimates of the Galaxy's rotation curve exterior thereto. There are no fit parameters: given the mass distribution, MOND provides a good match to the rotation curve. The Tuorla-Heidelberg model does allow for a variety of exponential scale lengths; MOND prefers short scale lengths in the range 2.0 to 2.5 kpc. The favored value of scale length depends somewhat on the choice of interpolation function. There is some preference for the `simple' interpolation function as found by Famaey & Binney. I introduce an interpolation function that shares the advantages of the simple function on galaxy scales while having a much smaller impact in the solar system. I also solve the inverse problem, inferring the surface mass density distribution of the Milky Way from the terminal velocities. The result is a Galaxy with `bumps and wiggles' in both its luminosity profile and rotation curve that are reminiscent of those frequently observed in external galaxies.Comment: Accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. 31 pages including 8 figures and 3 table