480 research outputs found

    Astrometric mock observations for determining the local dark matter density

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    To determine the local dark matter density (LDMD) of the solar system is a classical problem in astronomy. Recently, a novel method of determining the LDMD from stellar distribution and vertical velocity dispersion profiles perpendicular to the Galactic plane was devised. This method has the advantage of abolishing conventional approximations and using only a few assumptions. Our aims are to carefully scrutinize this method and to examine influences by uncertainties of astrometric observations. We discuss how the determinations of the LDMD vary with observational precisions on parallax, proper motion, and line-of-sight velocity measurements. To examine the influences by the observational imprecision, we created mock observation data for stars that are dynamical tracers based on an analytical galaxy model and applied parametrized observational errors to the mock data. We evaluated the accuracy of determining the LDMD by applying the method to the mock data. In addition, we estimated a sample size and observational precision required to determine the LDMD with accuracy. We find that the method is capable of determining the LDMD with accuracy if the sample size and observational precisions are satisfactory. The random errors of parallaxes and proper motions can cause systematic overestimation of the LDMD. We estimate the required precisions of the parallax measurements to be approximately 0.1-0.3 milliarcseconds at 1 kpc away from the Sun; the proper motion precisions do not seem to be as important as the parallaxes. From these results, we expect that using the Hipparcos catalog would overestimate the LDMD because of the imprecise parallax measurements if this method is applied; however, we emphasize the capability of the method. We expect that Gaia will provide data precise enough to determine the LDMD.Comment: 16 pages, 14 figures, A&A accepte

    Properties of thick discs formed in clumpy galaxies

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    We examine a possible formation scenario of galactic thick discs with numerical simulations. Thick discs have previously been argued to form in clumpy disc phase in the high-redshift Universe, which host giant clumps of <10^9 M_sun in their highly gas-rich discs. We performed SPH simulations using isolated galaxy models for the purpose of verifying whether dynamical and chemical properties of the thick discs formed in such clumpy galaxies are compatible with observations. The results of our simulations seem nearly consistent with observations in dynamical properties such as radial and vertical density profiles, significant rotation velocity lag with height and distributions of orbital eccentricities. In addition, the thick discs in our simulations indicate nearly exponential dependence of azimuthal and vertical velocity dispersions with radius, nearly isothermal kinematics in vertical direction and negligible metallicity gradients in radial and vertical directions. However, our simulations cannot reproduce altitudinal dependence of eccentricities, metallicity relations with eccentricities or rotation velocities, which shows striking discrepancy from recent observations of the Galactic thick disc. From this result, we infer that the clumpy disc scenario for thick-disc formation would not be suitable at least for the Milky Way. Our study, however, cannot reject this scenario for external galaxies if not all galaxies form their thick discs by the same process. In addition, we found that a large fraction of thick-disc stars forms in giant clumps.Comment: 15 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Pannus tissue at the cartilage-synovium junction in rheumatoid arthritis.

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    The cartilage-synovium junction of knees afflicted with rheumatoid arthritis was observed light microscopically using formalin-fixed, decalcified and immunohistochemically stained tissues. Decalcification had little or no influence on immunoreactivity for lysozyme and S-100 protein. All the specimens had pannus formation, which was classified into four types: A) cellular pannus with homogeneous cell pattern, B) cellular pannus of inflammatory cells, C) fibrous pannus with many fibrous bundles, D) fibrous pannus including round cells with scattered fibrous bundles. Type A pannus may be responsible for extensive cartilage degradation, and may occur at the first stage of pannus formation. Type B pannus may occur afterwards, and may be followed by type C pannus at a later stage. Type D pannus was found in two out of 19 specimens. Round cells in type D were positive for S-100 protein and lysozyme, and were probably chondrocytes. The findings indicated that chondrocytes were responsible for cartilage degradation and pannus formation.</p

    Non-linear violent disc instability with high Toomre's Q in high-redshift clumpy disc galaxies

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    We utilize zoom-in cosmological simulations to study the nature of violent disc instability (VDI) in clumpy galaxies at high redshift, z=1z=1--55. Our simulated galaxies are not in the ideal state assumed in Toomre instability, of linear fluctuations in an isolated, uniform, rotating disk. There, instability is characterised by a QQ parameter below unity, and lower when the disk is thick. Instead, the high-redshift discs are highly perturbed. Over long periods they consist of non-linear perturbations, compact massive clumps and extended structures, with new clumps forming in inter-clump regions. This is while the galaxy is subject to frequent external perturbances. We compute the local, two-component QQ parameter for gas and stars, smoothed on a 1 kpc\sim1~{\rm kpc} scale to capture clumps of 1089 M10^{8-9}~{\rm M}_\odot. The Q<1Q<1 regions are confined to collapsed clumps due to the high surface density there, while the inter-clump regions show QQ significantly higher than unity. Tracing the clumps back to their relatively smooth Lagrangian patches, we find that QQ prior to clump formation typically ranges from unity to a few. This is unlike the expectations from standard Toomre instability. We discuss possible mechanisms for high-QQ clump formation, e.g. rapid turbulence decay leading to small clumps that grow by mergers, non-axisymmetric instability, or clump formation induced by non-linear perturbations in the disk. Alternatively, the high-QQ non-linear VDI may be stimulated by the external perturbations such as mergers and counter-rotating streams. The high QQ may represent excessive compressive modes of turbulence, possibly induced by tidal interactions.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS. 20 pages, 21 figure