4,591 research outputs found

    Comparison of Age and Growth Parameters of Invasive Red Lionfish (\u3ci\u3ePterois volitans\u3c/i\u3e) Across the Northern Gulf of Mexico

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    Invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have spread rapidly throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) partly because of their high growth rate. Red lionfish were collected from the northern GOM across 3 ecological regions from 2012 through 2015. For male and female red lionfish, relationships between weight and total length (TL) were differnt by ecological region. Males acheives a greater mean weight adjusted for TL (333.6 g [standar errer (SE) 3.6]) than females (195.1 g [SE 3.7]). A subsample of 1607 pairs of sagittal otoliths (from 744 males, 716 females, and 147 fish of unknown or undetermined sex) was used to assign ages. Ages ranged from 0.0 to 4.5 years (mean: 1.4 years), and these estimated ages and the dates of capture for specimens confirm the presence of red lionfish in the northern GOM in 2008, 2 years prior to the first detection of this species there. There were differences in age and rowth between sexes within and among ecological regions, with males achieving higher growth rates and larger asympototic lengths than females (all comparions:

    A NICER Discovery of a Low-Frequency Quasi-Periodic Oscillation in the Soft-Intermediate State of MAXI J1535-571

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    We present the discovery of a low-frequency 5.7\approx 5.7 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) feature in observations of the black hole X-ray binary MAXI J1535-571 in its soft-intermediate state, obtained in September-October 2017 by the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER). The feature is relatively broad (compared to other low-frequency QPOs; quality factor Q2Q\approx 2) and weak (1.9% rms in 3-10 keV), and is accompanied by a weak harmonic and low-amplitude broadband noise. These characteristics identify it as a weak Type A/B QPO, similar to ones previously identified in the soft-intermediate state of the transient black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The lag-energy spectrum of the QPO shows increasing soft lags towards lower energies, approaching 50 ms at 1 keV (with respect to a 3-10 keV continuum). This large phase shift has similar amplitude but opposite sign to that seen in Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data for a Type B QPO from the transient black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4. Previous phase-resolved spectroscopy analysis of the Type B QPO in GX 339-4 pointed towards a precessing jet-like corona illuminating the accretion disk as the origin of the QPO signal. We suggest that this QPO in MAXI J1535-571 may have the same origin, with the different lag sign depending on the scale height of the emitting region and the observer inclination angle.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    PAP-LMPCR for improved, allele-specific footprinting and automated chromatin fine structure analysis

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    The analysis of chromatin fine structure and transcription factor occupancy of differentially expressed genes by in vivo footprinting and ligation-mediated-PCR (LMPCR) is a powerful tool to understand the impact of chromatin on gene expression. However, as with all PCR-based techniques, the accuracy of the experiments has often been reduced by sequence similarities and the presence of GC-rich or repeat sequences, and some sequences are completely refractory to analysis. Here we describe a novel method, pyrophosphorolysis activated polymerization LMPCR or PAP-LMPCR, which is capable of generating accurate and reproducible footprints specific for individual alleles and can read through sequences previously not accessible for analysis. In addition, we have adapted this technique for automation, thus enabling the simultaneous and rapid analysis of chromatin structure at many different genes

    LEO Download Capacity Analysis for a Network of Adaptive Array Ground Stations

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    To lower costs and reduce latency, a network of adaptive array ground stations, distributed across the United States, is considered for the downlink of a polar-orbiting low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite. Assuming the X-band 105 Mbps transmitter of NASA s Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite with a simple line-of-sight propagation model, the average daily download capacity in bits for a network of adaptive array ground stations is compared to that of a single 11 m dish in Poker Flats, Alaska. Each adaptive array ground station is assumed to have multiple steerable antennas, either mechanically steered dishes or phased arrays that are mechanically steered in azimuth and electronically steered in elevation. Phased array technologies that are being developed for this application are the space-fed lens (SFL) and the reflectarray. Optimization of the different boresight directions of the phased arrays within a ground station is shown to significantly increase capacity; for example, this optimization quadruples the capacity for a ground station with eight SFLs. Several networks comprising only two to three ground stations are shown to meet or exceed the capacity of the big dish, Cutting the data rate by half, which saves modem costs and increases the coverage area of each ground station, is shown to increase the average daily capacity of the network for some configurations

    Sustainable aromatic aliphatic polyesters and polyurethanes prepared from vanillin-derived diols via green catalysis

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    The design and preparation of polymers by using biobased chemicals is regarded as an important strategy towards a sustainable polymer chemistry. Herein, two aromatic diols, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyphenol and 2-(4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy)ethanol, have been prepared in good yields through the direct reduction of vanillin and hydroxyethylated vanillin (4-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-3-methoxybenzaldehyde) using NaBH4, respectively. The diols were submitted to traditional polycondensation and polyaddition with acyl chlorides and diisocyanatos, and serials of new polyesters and polyurethanes were prepared in high yields with moderate molecular weight ranging from 17,000 to 40,000 g mol . Their structures were characterized by H NMR, C NMR and FTIR, and their thermal properties were studied by TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicating that the as-prepared polyesters and polyurethanes have T in the range of 16.2 to 81.2 °C and 11.6 to 80.4 °C, respectively. -1 1 13

    Polypyrrole-Fe2O3 nanohybrid materials for electrochemical storage

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    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of nanohybrid polypyrrole (PPy) (PPy/Fe2O3) materials for electrochemical storage applications. We have shown that the incorporation of nanoparticles inside the PPy notably increases the charge storage capability in comparison to the “pure” conducting polymer. Incorporation of large anions, i.e., paratoluenesulfonate, allows a further improvement in the capacity. These charge storage modifications have been attributed to the morphology of the composite in which the particle sizes and the specific surface area are modified with the incorporation of nanoparticles. High capacity and stability have been obtained in PC/NEt4BF4 (at 20 mV/s), i.e., 47 mAh/g, with only a 3% charge loss after one thousand cyles. The kinetics of charge–discharge is also improved by the hybrid nanocomposite morphology modifications, which increase the rate of insertion–expulsion of counter anions in the bulk of the film. A room temperature ionic liquid such as imidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonimide seems to be a promising electrolyte because it further increases the capacity up to 53 mAh/g with a high stability during charge–discharge processes

    The pd <--> pi+ t reaction around the Delta resonance

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    The pd pi+ t process has been calculated in the energy region around the Delta-resonance with elementary production/absorption mechanisms involving one and two nucleons. The isobar degrees of freedom have been explicitly included in the two-nucleon mechanism via pi-- and rho-exchange diagrams. No free parameters have been employed in the analysis since all the parameters have been fixed in previous studies on the simpler pp pi+ d process. The treatment of the few-nucleon dynamics entailed a Faddeev-based calculation of the reaction, with continuum calculations for the initial p-d state and accurate solutions of the three-nucleon bound-state equation. The integral cross-section was found to be quite sensitive to the NN interaction employed while the angular dependence showed less sensitivity. Approximately a 4% effect was found for the one-body mechanism, for the three-nucleon dynamics in the p-d channel, and for the inclusion of a large, possibly converged, number of three-body partial states, indicating that these different aspects are of comparable importance in the calculation of the spin-averaged observables.Comment: 40 Pages, RevTex, plus 5 PostScript figure
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