4,225 research outputs found

    ATLAS physics prospects for the upgraded LHC

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    The 2010-2012 operation period at the LHC has been very successful, including the discovery of a new particle with a mass of about 125 GeV compatible within uncertainties with the Higgs boson predicted by Standard Model. Precise measurements of the properties of this boson, and the discovery of new physics beyond the Standard Model, are primary goals of future running at the LHC. The physics prospects with a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV are presented for 300 fb−1 and 3000 fb−1 at the high-luminositiy LHC. The ultimate precision attainable on measurements of the couplings of the 125 GeV particle to elementary fermions and bosons is discussed, as well as perspectives on the searches for partners associated with this new object, predicted by several extensions of the standard theory. Supersymmetry is one of the best motivated and well-studied extensions of the Standard Model. The current searches at the LHC have yielded sensitivity to TeV scale gluinos and 1st and 2nd generation squarks, as well as to 3rd generation squarks and electro-weakinos in the hundreds of GeV mass range. Benchmark studies are presented to show how these limits can be extended for inclusive strong production of squarks and gluinos, direct production of 3rd generation squarks and weak production of electro-weakinos. A considerable fraction of the parameter space for a wide variety of other models has been probed with the 8 TeV data. The prospects of searches for new heavy bosons and dark matter candidates at 14 TeV are explored here. For all these studies, a parameterised simulation of the upgraded ATLAS detector is used, taking into account the expected pileup conditions

    A multicarrier amplifier design linearized trough second harmonics and second-order IM feedback

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    A novel linearisation technique for reduction in the first and second kind of the third-order intermodulation products was applied in this paper. The second harmonics and second-order intermodulation products are led from the output to the input of a power amplifier through a feedback loop. The power amplifier including the feedback loop components (bandpass filter, phase shifter and attenuator) was designed as a hybrid microwave integrated circuit by using program ADS. The phase and amplitude of the loop signals are the adjustable parameters. Therefore, a voltage that controls a phase shift of the phase shifter and a control current of a PIN diode in the attenuator circuit were optimised to obtain a reduction in the third-order intermodulation distortion. For three fundamental signals at the power amplifier input, the lowest improvement of 13 dB for the first and 18 dB for the second kind of the third order intermodulation product levels was achieved

    On kurtosis and extreme waves in crossing directional seas:A laboratory experiment

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    We examine the statistical properties of extreme and rogue wave activity in crossing directional seas, to constrain the probabilistic distributions of wave heights and wave crests in complex sea states; such crossing seas alter the statistical structure of surface waves and are known to have been involved in several marine accidents. Further, we examine the relationship between the kurtosis as an indicator of nonlinearity in the spectrum and the directionality and crossing angles of the sea-state components. Experimental tests of two-component directionally spread irregular waves with varying frequency, directional spreading and component crossing angles were carried out at the Ocean Basin Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The results from the experiments show that wave heights are well described by a first-order (linear) statistical distribution, while for the wave crest heights several cases exceed a second-order distribution. The number of rogue waves is relatively low overall, which agrees with previous findings in directionally spread seas. The kurtosis and wave and crest height exceedance probabilities were more affected by varying the directional spreading of the components than by varying the crossing angles between components; reducing the component directional spreading increases the kurtosis and increases the exceedance probabilities. The kurtosis can be estimated quite well for two-component seas from the directional spreading using an empirical relationship based on the two-dimensional Benjamin–Feir index when the effects of bound modes are included. This result may allow forecasting of the probability of extreme waves from the directional spreading in complex sea states

    Magnetic dipole induced guided vortex motion

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    We present evidence of magnetically controlled guided vortex motion in a hybrid superconductor/ferromagnet nanosystem consisting of an Al film on top of a square array of permalloy square rings. When the rings are magnetized with an in-plane external field H, an array of point-like dipoles with moments antiparallel to H, is formed. The resulting magnetic template generates a strongly anisotropic pinning potential landscape for vortices in the superconducting layer. Transport measurements show that this anisotropy is able to confine the flux motion along the high symmetry axes of the square lattice of dipoles. This guided vortex motion can be either re-routed by 90 degrees by simply changing the dipole orientation or even strongly suppressed by inducing a flux-closure magnetic state with very low stray fields in the rings.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Linearization of multichannel amplifiers with the injection of second harmonics into the amplifier and predistortion circuit

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    A linearization technique that uses the injection of the fundamental signal second harmonics together with the fundamental signals at the amplifier input has been extended in this paper by introducing the injection the second harmonics into nonlinear microwave amplifier and so-called predistortion circuit. Predistortion circuit produces the third-order intermodulation signals that are injected at the amplifier input together with the second harmonics making the linearization procedure more independent on the phase variation of the second harmonics. In addition, a considerably better improvement is attained for the power of fundamental signals close to 1-dB compression point by applying the linearization technique proposed in this paper in comparison to the linearization with the injection of the second harmonics merely in the nonlinear amplifier

    Doherty Amplifier Linearization in Experiments by Digital Injection Methods

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    In this paper, the experimental verification of two linearization methods applied on a broadband two-way microstrip Doherty amplifier is performed. The laboratory set-ups are formed to generate the baseband nonlinear linearization signals of the second-order. After being tuned in magnitude and phase in the digital domain the linearization signals modulate the second harmonics of fundamental carrier. In the first method, adequately processed signals are then inserted at the input and output of the main Doherty amplifier transistor, whereas in the second method, they are injected at the outputs of the Doherty main and auxiliary amplifier transistors. The experimental results are obtained for 16QAM and 64QAM digitally modulated signals

    Caffeine-derived noble carbons as ball milling-resistant cathode materials for lithium-ion capacitors

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    Energy consumption is a growing phenomenon in our society causing many negative effects such as global warming. There is a need for the development of new sustainable materials for energy storage. Carbons are materials derivable from biowaste that can rather easily store energy due to their high conductivity and surface area. However, their large-scale processing is challenging as derived materials can be rather heterogeneous and homogenization requires ball milling, a process that can damage carbons in the process of oxidation. Herein, we have prepared caffeine-derived noble nitrogen-doped carbon that withstands the ball milling process without significant oxidation. Additionally, it performs extraordinarily as a cathode material for lithium-ion capacitors, making it an attractive biowaste-derived alternative to commercial heavy metal cathodes
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