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    Nanotechnology based drug delivery systems for the treatment of anterior segment eye diseases

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    Diseases affecting the anterior segment of the eye are the primary causes of vision impairment and blindness globally. Drug administration through the topical ocular route is widely accepted because of its user/patient friendliness - ease of administration and convenience. However, it remains a significant challenge to efficiently deliver drugs to the eye through this route because of various structural and physiological constraints that restrict the distribution of therapeutic molecules into the ocular tissues. The bioavailability of topically applied ocular medications such as eye drops is typically less than 5%. Developing novel delivery systems to increase the retention time on the ocular surfaces and permeation through the cornea is one of the approaches adopted to boost the bioavailability of topically administered medications. Drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology such as micelles, nanosuspensions, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, liposomes, dendrimers, niosomes, cubosomes and nanowafers have been investigated as effective alternatives to conventional ocular delivery systems in treating diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. This review discussed different nanotechnology-based delivery systems that are currently investigated for treating and managing diseases affecting the anterior ocular tissues. We also looked at the challenges in translating these systems into clinical use and the prospects of nanocarriers as a vehicle for the delivery of phytoactive compounds to the anterior segment of the eye
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