2,898 research outputs found

    Sommerfeld enhancement from Goldstone pseudo-scalar exchange

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    We point out that the exchange of a Goldstone pseudo-scalar can provide an enhancement in the dark matter annihilation rate capable of explaining the excess flux seen in high energy cosmic ray data. The mechanism of enhancement involves the coupling of s and d waves through the tensor force that is very strong and, in fact, singular at short distances. The results indicate that large enhancements require some amount of fine tuning. We also discuss the enhancement due to other singular attractive potentials, such as WIMP models with a permanent electric dipole.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures, v2 includes contact informatio

    The twisted open string partition function and Yukawa couplings

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    We use the operator formalism to derive the bosonic contribution to the twisted open string partition function in toroidal compactifications. This amplitude describes, for instance, the planar interaction between g+1 magnetized or intersecting D-branes. We write the result both in the closed and in the open string channel in terms of Prym differentials on the appropriate Riemann surface. Then we focus on the g=2 case for a 2-torus. By factorizing the twisted partition function in the open string channel we obtain an explicit expression for the 3-twist field correlator, which is the main ingredient in the computation of Yukawa couplings in D-brane phenomenological models. This provides an alternative method for computing these couplings that does not rely on the stress-energy tensor technique.Comment: 32 pages, 5 figures, Latex; v2: typos correcte

    Edge Tunneling of Vortices in Superconducting Thin Films

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    We investigate the phenomenon of the decay of a supercurrent due to the zero-temperature quantum tunneling of vortices from the edge in a thin superconducting film in the absence of an external magnetic field. An explicit formula is derived for the tunneling rate of vortices, which are subject to the Magnus force induced by the supercurrent, through the Coulomb-like potential barrier binding them to the film's edge. Our approach ensues from the non-relativistic version of a Schwinger-type calculation for the decay of the 2D vacuum previously employed for describing vortex-antivortex pair-nucleation in the bulk of the sample. In the dissipation-dominated limit, our explicit edge-tunneling formula yields numerical estimates which are compared with those obtained for bulk-nucleation to show that both mechanisms are possible for the decay of a supercurrent.Comment: REVTeX file, 15 pages, 1 Postscript figure; to appear in Phys.Rev.

    Stability of the de Sitter spacetime in Horava-Lifshitz theory

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    The stability of de Sitter spacetime in Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity with projectability but without detailed balance condition is studied. It is found that, in contrast to the case of the Minkowski background, the spin-0 graviton now is stable for any given ξ\xi, and free of ghost for ξ≤0\xi \le 0 in the infrared limit, where ξ\xi is the dynamical coupling constant.Comment: Mod. Phys. Lett. A25, 2267-2279 (2010

    Dynamical Vortices in Superfluid Films

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    The coupling of vortices to phonons in a superfluid is a gauge coupling dictated by topology. The density and current response to a moving vortex are computed and contrasted with the standard backflow picture. Exploiting the analogy to (2+1)-dimensional electrodynamics, we compute the effective vortex mass M(ω)M(\omega) and find it to be logarithmically divergent in the low frequency limit, leading to a super-Ohmic dissipation in response to an oscillating superflow. Numerical integration of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation supports these conclusions. Interaction of vortices and impurities is also discussed.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figure

    Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere

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    We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are all most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory and the composite fermion theory, are physically equivalent.Comment: 37 pages, revte

    On the scattering amplitude in the Aharonov-Bohm gauge field

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    A general expression for the scattering amplitude of nonrelativistic spinless particles in the Aharonov-Bohm gauge potential is obtained within the time independent formalism. The result is valid also in the backward and forward directions as well as for any choice of the boundary conditions on the wave function at the flux tube position.Comment: 18 pages, plain TE

    Nambu-Poisson Bracket and M-Theory Branes Coupled to Antisymmetric Fluxes

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    By using the recently proposed prescription arXiv:0804.3629 for obtaining the M5M5 brane action from multiple M2M2 branes action in BLG theory, we examine such transition when 11 Dimensional background antisymmetric fluxes couple to the M2M2 brane world volume. Such couplings was suggested in arXiv:0805.3427 where it was used the fact that various fields in BLG theory are valued in a Lie 3-algebra. We argue that this action and promoting it by Nambu-Poisson bracket gives the expected coupling of fluxes with M5M5 brane at least at weak coupling limit. We also study some other aspects of the action for example, the gauge invariance of the theory.Comment: 14 page

    The phase portrait of a matter bounce in Horava-Lifshitz cosmology

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    The occurrence of a bounce in FRW cosmology requires modifications of general relativity. An example of such a modification is the recently proposed Horava-Lifshitz theory of gravity, which includes a ``dark radiation'' term with a negative coefficient in the analog of the Friedmann equation. This paper describes a phase space analysis of models of this sort with the aim of determining to what extent bouncing solutions can occur. A simplification, valid in the relevant region, allows a reduction of the dimension of phase space so that visualization in three dimensions is possible. It is found that a bounce is possible, but not generic in models under consideration. Apart from previously known bouncing solutions some new ones are also described. Other interesting solutions found include ones which describe a novel sort of oscillating universes.Comment: 14 pages, 8 figure

    Detailed balance condition and ultraviolet stability of scalar field in Horava-Lifshitz gravity

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    Detailed balance and projectability conditions are two main assumptions when Horava recently formulated his theory of quantum gravity - the Horava-Lifshitz (HL) theory. While the latter represents an important ingredient, the former often believed needs to be abandoned, in order to obtain an ultraviolet stable scalar field, among other things. In this paper, because of several attractive features of this condition, we revisit it, and show that the scalar field can be stabilized, if the detailed balance condition is allowed to be softly broken. Although this is done explicitly in the non-relativistic general covariant setup of Horava-Melby-Thompson with an arbitrary coupling constant λ\lambda, generalized lately by da Silva, it is also true in other versions of the HL theory. With the detailed balance condition softly breaking, the number of independent coupling constants can be still significantly reduced. It is remarkable to note that, unlike other setups, in this da Silva generalization, there exists a master equation for the linear perturbations of the scalar field in the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background.Comment: Some typos are corrected. To appear in JCA
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