2,400 research outputs found

    Optimal transport for a novel event description at hadron colliders

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    We propose a novel strategy for disentangling proton collisions at hadron colliders such as the LHC that considerably improves over the current state of the art. Employing a metric inspired by optimal transport problems as the cost function of a graph neural network, our algorithm is able to compare two particle collections with different noise levels and learns to flag particles originating from the main interaction amidst products from up to 200 simultaneous pileup collisions. We thereby sidestep the critical task of obtaining a ground truth by labeling particles and avoid arduous human annotation in favor of labels derived in situ through a self-supervised process. We demonstrate how our approach—which, unlike competing algorithms, is trivial to implement—improves the resolution in key objects used in precision measurements and searches alike and present large sensitivity gains in searching for exotic Higgs boson decays at the High-Luminosity LHC

    Nanoplastics impair in vitro swine granulosa cell functions

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    Soil, water and air pollution by plastic represents an issue of great concern since the particles produced by degradation of plastic materials can be ingested by animals and humans, with still uncertain health consequences. As a contribution on this crucial subject, the present work reports an investigation on the in vitro effects of different concentrations of polystyrene nanoplastics (5, 25 and 75 μg/mL) on swine granulosa cells, a model of endocrine reproductive cells. In particular, cell growth (BrDU incorporation and ATP production), steroidogenesis (17-β estradiol and progesterone secretion) and redox status (superoxide and nitric oxide production, enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging activity) were studied. Nanoplastics, at the highest concentration, stimulated cell proliferation (P < 0.05), while cell viability resulted unaffected. Steroidogenesis were disrupted (P < 0.05). Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic scavenging activity were increased after exposure at the highest nanoplastic dose (P < 0.05, P < 0.001). Nitric oxide secretion was increased by 25 and 75 μg/mL (P < 0.05) while superoxide generation was stimulated (P < 0.001) only by the highest concentration tested. Taken together, main features of cultured swine granulosa cells resulted affected by exposure to nanoplastics. These results raise concerns since environment nanoplastic contamination can represents a serious threat to animal and human health

    Influence of Hospitalization upon Diagnosis on the Risk of Tuberculosis Clustering

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    Abstract. Setting: Culture-positive tuberculosis (TB) diagnosed in the metropolitan area of Milan (Italy) over a 5-year period (1995-1999). Objective: To assess the impact of short-course hospitalization upon diagnosis on the overall risk of TB clustering. Design: Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles with a similarity of 100% defined a cluster. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to assess factors associated with clustering. Results: Among 1139 patients, 392 (34.4%) were hospitalized before or soon after diagnosis, 405 (35.6%) received domiciliary treatment since the diagnosis and 392 (30%) had no information about initial clinical management. One hundred fifteen molecular clusters involving 363 patients were identified. Using multivariable analysis, hospitalization was not significantly associated with clustering (OR 1.06, 95%CI 0.75-1.50, p=0.575). Subjects aged >65 years old (OR 0.60; 95CI%:0.37-0.95; p=0.016) and non-Italian born patients (OR 0.56; 95%CI:0.41-0.76; p<0.001) were running a lower risk of clustering. Conversely, HIV co-infected patients (OR 1.88, 95%CI:1.20-2.95, p=0.006) and those with MDR TB (OR 2.50, 95%CI:1.46-4.25, p=0.001) were significantly more likely to be involved in clusters. Conclusion: In our cohort, domiciliary treatment was not associated with TB clustering. Expanding domiciliary treatment upon diagnosis appears as an advisable measure to reduce unnecessary costs for the health care system

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum