1,022 research outputs found

    Nonlinear Associations Between Working Hours and Overwork-Related Cerebrovascular and Cardiovascular Diseases (CCVD)

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    Long working hours are recognized as a risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases (CCVD). We investigated the relationship between working hours and different CCVD severity outcomes—death, disability, and illness—across industries in Taiwan from 2006 to 2016. We applied a generalized additive mixed model to estimate the association between working hours and the rate of each severity outcome, adjusted for salary, unemployment rate, time, and a random intercept. Industry-average working hours were significantly associated with each outcome level of overwork-related CCVD, especially when monthly working hours increased from 169 (relative risk [RR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002–2.12) to 187 (RR = 5.73, 95% CI 3.61–9.08). Although RR trends declined after monthly working hours exceeded 187, excess risks remained statistically significant. Each 1-hour increase in working hours had a stronger effect on the RR increase in death and disability than on illness. Variations in CCVD risks existed across industries, with the highest risk in transportation and information. Reducing working hours is essential to preventing overwork-related CCVD, especially the more severe outcomes. We recommend further research to address possible underreporting of less severe cases, and to explore actions to narrow the gaps in risk across industries

    Mortality among Lifelong Nonsmokers Exposed to Secondhand Smoke at Home: Cohort Data and Sensitivity Analyses

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    Evidence is growing that secondhand smoke can cause death from several diseases. The association between household exposure to secondhand smoke and disease-specific mortality was examined in two New Zealand cohorts of lifelong nonsmokers (‘‘never smokers’’) aged 45–77 years. Individual census records from 1981 and 1996 were anonymously and probabilistically linked with mortality records from the 3 years that followed each census. Age- and ethnicity-standardized mortality rates were compared for never smokers with and without home exposure to secondhand smoke (based on the reported smoking behavior of other household members). Relative risk estimates adjusted for age, ethnicity, marital status, and socioeconomic position showed a significantly greater mortality risk for never smokers living in households with smokers, with excess mortality attributed to tobacco-related diseases, particularly ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, but not lung cancer. Adjusted relative risk estimates for all cardiovascular diseases were 1.19 (95 % confidence interval: 1.04, 1.38) for men and 1.01 (95 % confidence interval: 0.88, 1.16) for women from the 1981–1984 cohort, and 1.25 (95 % confidence interval: 1.06, 1.47) for men and 1.35 (95 % confidence interval: 1.11, 1.64) for women from the 1996–1999 cohort. Passive smokers also had nonsignificantly increased mortality from respiratory disease. Sensitivity analyses in-dicate that these findings are not due to misclassification bias. cohort studies; mortality; myocardial ischemia; neoplasms; New Zealand; respiratory tract diseases; tobacc

    Less comprehensive social policies may contribute to lower life expectancies and worse health in the U.S. compared to other high-income countries

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    Americans lead shorter and less healthy lives than people in other high-income countries. Is this US health disadvantage specific to some US populations, diseases, or particular age groups? And what explains these variations in the length and quality of life between Americans and other high-income countries? Mauricio Avendano and Ichiro Kawachi review the evidence and find the American health disadvantage begins at birth and extends across the life-course, and it is particularly marked for American women and for regions in the US South and Midwest. They propose explanations that include differences in health care, individual behaviors, socioeconomic inequalities, and the physical and the built environment. However, crucial differences in social policy between the US and other high income countries may also underlie an important part of the US’ health disadvantage

    Discrimination and Telomere Length Among Older Adults in the United States

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    Abstract Objectives: Chronic stress from experiencing discrimination can lead to long-term changes in psychological and physiologic responses, including shorter leukocyte telomere length. We examined the association between leukocyte telomere length and variations in the association by race or type of discrimination. Methods: Our study consisted of 3868 US-born non-Hispanic black (hereinafter, black) and non-Hispanic white (hereinafter, white) adult participants from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study biomarker sample with complete sociodemographic and discrimination information. We examined major lifetime unfair treatment and everyday discrimination. Coarsened exact matching matched exposed and unexposed participants on several sociodemographic factors. Coarsened exact matching creates analytic weights for the matched data sets. We applied weighted linear regression to the matched data sets. We conducted 2 subanalyses in which we matched on potential mediators—physical activity, smoking status, and obesity—and examined if racism was associated with shorter telomere length compared with other attributes. All analyses were stratified by race. Results: We found no difference in telomere length for black and white participants reporting major lifetime unfair treatment (β = 0.09; 95% CI, –0.33 to 0.15) or everyday discrimination (β = 0.04; 95% CI, –0.12 to 0.40). Everyday discrimination was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length among black people (β = –0.23; 95% CI, –0.44 to –0.01) but not among white people (β = 0.05; 95% CI, –0.01 to 0.10). Matching on potential mediators generally decreased the effect estimate among black people. Conclusions: Experiencing everyday discrimination was associated with shortened telomere length among older black adults. Further research is needed to understand the adverse physiologic effects of discrimination to create effective interventions

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Child Psychosocial Behavior: A Sibling Fixed-Effects Analysis

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    Background: The association between low levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and children's health remains unclear because of the difficulty in ruling out residual genetic and environmental confounding factors. In this study, using a within-family sibling fixed effects design, we sought to examine the association between low prenatal alcohol exposures (PAE) and children's overall psychosocial behavior in a Japanese cohort.Methods: We used maternal and sibling data from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income and Neighborhood 2012-2013. Households were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area through clustered random sampling. Children under 18 years old who have siblings (n = 1,600) and their mothers were selected. PAE status was retrospectively measured, and classified by binominal and continuous measurements. Outcome measures of children's psychosocial behavior were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist T-score.Results: Low PAE was significantly associated with the offspring's anxiety problems (β = 1.54, 95%CI = 0.26, 2.82) and internalizing problems (β = 2.73, 95%CI = 0.87, 4.60), and marginally significant with the offspring's total problem scores (β = 2.34, 95%CI = −0.24, 4.92). There was no significant difference in PAE between boys and girls when it comes to behavioral problems.Conclusions: Low PAE was associated with children's anxiety, internalizing problems and overall problems, taking into account possible unobserved genetic and environmental confounding influences