318 research outputs found

    Interactions between fMRI BOLD-activation during Reading Tasks and MRS-measured Metabolite Levels

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    Recent studies in the field of dyslexia have used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to explore neurochemical manifestations of neurobiological differences in the brains of dyslexic adults compared to controls. This study examines the potential relationship between functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) BOLD (blood oxygen level demand) activation scores in response to cognitive tasks and MRS-measured levels of a metabolite and a neurotransmitter, N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) respectively, in the occipital region of brains of seven-year old children. Preliminary results from this multi-arm, longitudinal study indicate a significant positive correlation between fMRI BOLD signal elicited in response to picture-cues in the occipital region of interest bilaterally, and both GABA (R2=0.477 p=0.05, 2-tailed) and NAA (R2=0.587 p=0.01, 2-tailed) levels. The results suggest that the functional neuroanatomical circuitry involved in a cognitive task also has neurochemical indicators

    Volatile Memory Message Carving: A per process basis Approach

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    The pace at which data and information transfer and storage has shifted from PCs to mobile devices is of great concern to the digital forensics community. Android is fast becoming the operating system of choice for these hand-held devices, hence the need to develop better forensic techniques for data recovery cannot be over-emphasized. This thesis analyzes the volatile memory for Motorola Android devices with a shift from traditional physical memory extraction to carving residues of data on a “per process basis”. Each Android application runs in a separate process within its own Dalvik Virtual Machine (JVM) instance, thus, the proposed “per process basis” approach. To extract messages, we first extract the runtime memory of the MotoBlur application, then carve and reconstruct both deleted and undeleted messages (emails and chat messages). An experimental study covering two Android phones is also presented

    Malware Analysis and Privacy Policy Enforcement Techniques for Android Applications

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    The rapid increase in mobile malware and deployment of over-privileged applications over the years has been of great concern to the security community. Encroaching on user’s privacy, mobile applications (apps) increasingly exploit various sensitive data on mobile devices. The information gathered by these applications is sufficient to uniquely and accurately profile users and can cause tremendous personal and financial damage. On Android specifically, the security and privacy holes in the operating system and framework code has created a whole new dynamic for malware and privacy exploitation. This research work seeks to develop novel analysis techniques that monitor Android applications for possible unwanted behaviors and then suggest various ways to deal with the privacy leaks associated with them. Current state-of-the-art static malware analysis techniques on Android-focused mainly on detecting known variants without factoring any kind of software obfuscation. The dynamic analysis systems, on the other hand, are heavily dependent on extending the Android OS and/or runtime virtual machine. These methodologies often tied the system to a single Android version and/or kernel making it very difficult to port to a new device. In privacy, accesses to the database system’s objects are not controlled by any security check beyond overly-broad read/write permissions. This flawed model exposes the database contents to abuse by privacy-agnostic apps and malware. This research addresses the problems above in three ways. First, we developed a novel static analysis technique that fingerprints known malware based on three-level similarity matching. It scores similarity as a function of normalized opcode sequences found in sensitive functional modules and application permission requests. Our system has an improved detection ratio over current research tools and top COTS anti-virus products while maintaining a high level of resiliency to both simple and complex obfuscation. Next, we augment the signature-related weaknesses of our static classifier with a hybrid analysis system which incorporates bytecode instrumentation and dynamic runtime monitoring to examine unknown malware samples. Using the concept of Aspect-oriented programming, this technique involves recompiling security checking code into an unknown binary for data flow analysis, resource abuse tracing, and analytics of other suspicious behaviors. Our system logs all the intercepted activities dynamically at runtime without the need for building custom kernels. Finally, we designed a user-level privacy policy enforcement system that gives users more control over their personal data saved in the SQLite database. Using bytecode weaving for query re-writing and enforcing access control, our system forces new policies at the schema, column, and entity levels of databases without rooting or voiding device warranty

    Perception and practice of self-medication with over-the-counter analgesics among students of a tertiary institution

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    Background: Although over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics increase access to and ease of medication, they are a major contributor to irrational use of medicines worldwide.This study assessed perception and practice of self-medication with OTC analgesics among students of Federal College of Education,Zaria.Method: It was a cross-sectional study of 200 students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were computed, and Chi-square test was used to test association between practice of self-medication and other categorical variables.Results: Seventy-six (38.8%) had good knowledge of OTC analgesics and 187 (95.4%) had good perception. Majority 151 (77.0%) had taken at least one OTC analgesic in the last three months.The most common reason for taking OTC analgesics was their easy availability 66 (43.7%),and the most common symptom treated was headache 80 (53.0%).Self-medication with OTC analgesics was significantly associated with age (p = 0.010) and level of study (p = 0.001),but not with sex (p = 0.866),ethnicity (p = 0.416) or marital status (p = 0.104).Conclusion: Knowledge of OTC analgesics was poor,perception was largely positive,while self-medication was a common practice. Major factors influencing self-medication were age and level of education. It is recommended that efforts to control excessive self-medication with OTC analgesics should focus on creating public awareness and restricting the sale of OTC analgesics to licensed dealers.Keywords: Self-Medication, Over-The-Counter, Analgesics,Student

    Effect of Bureau De Change Establishment on the Stability of Exchange Rates in Nigeria

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    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of Bureau de change establishment on the stability of the exchange rate in Nigeria. Ex post-facto and correlation research designs are employed for this study. The sample relied on for the purpose of this work was for the period from 2008-2018. The study relies on secondary data sources such as books, journals, magazines, newspapers, internet, speeches, and document from CBN, NSE and Bureau for public enterprises. The data estimation technique used was ordinary least squares. The findings of the study revealed that the bureau de change establishment impact the stability of the exchange rate in Nigeria. The result indicated that is the long-run relationship between Bureau De change and stability of the exchange rate. The study recommended that participants in the foreign exchange market should undertake forward transactions to serve as an insurance cover (shield) for their spot transactions. The exchange rate of the bureau de change should be closely monitored by monetary authorities to reduce the gap between these rates and the official rates. The government should adopt measures that would bring down the exchange rate of the naira to a US dollar so that Nigerian producers who make use of imported raw materials can continue in business. Keywords: Bureau De Change, Exchange Rate, Stability, Monetary, Naira. DOI: 10.7176/EJBM/12-6-01 Publication date: February 29th 202

    Strengthening Bauchi State College of Nursing and Midwifery by updating its training curricula, procedure manuals and student handbooks

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    Many of Nigeria’s Nursing and Midwifery schools and colleges encounter challenges that include outdated training curricula, which can lead, in some cases, to loss of accreditation. In Bauchi state, a state College of Nursing and Midwifery was formally established in 2013. The Population Council engaged a curriculum expert who had worked with the Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria (which stipulates minimum standards of compliance for accreditation) to assess the school’s training documents, including its training curriculum, procedure manual, and student handbook. The school is expected to secure full accreditation in 2019. The Population Council also supported the strengthening of the curriculum review committee, which now meets regularly to discuss both tutor and student recommendations on use of the new materials

    Development of a Prototype Autonomous Electric Vehicle

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    The paper presents an Autonomous Electric Vehicle with obstacle avoidance system. This research work made use of ultrasonic sensors, the principle of distance measurements and calculations as well as detecting obstacle on its path. The device consists of three ultrasonic sensors that detect object for each left, right and front of the vehicle, based on developed and installed codes in the Arduino microcontroller and displays the range using ISIS Proteus 8 electronic modelling software. The minimum and maximum range of object detections is 2cm to 400cm respectively. However, the measured distance was from 25cm to 150cm and the corresponding calculated distances using oscilloscope waveforms are 28.10cm and 148.3cm. The difference between the measured and calculated distance was 5.4% on average. GPS navigates the vehicle autonomously to its destination using an algorithm for navigation based on reactive behavior. The vehicle is powered by rechargeable batteries (4 lithium ion batteries) which are charged using external power source by connecting into electricity grid. Furthermore, a solar panel has been utilized as a secondary source of power to charge the batteries. This reduces the dependency of the vehicle on external power sources. The vehicle is capable of moving for about 20m to and fro and avoiding obstacle on its path

    Women’s Voices, Work and Bodily Integrity in Pre-Conflict, Conflict and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Processes in Sierra Leone

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    This article focuses on the historical trajectories of women’s empowerment in Sierra Leone, taking three entry-points as a means of exploring the dynamics of change over the pre-conflict, conflict and post-conflict periods: voice and political participation; work and economic participation; and bodily integrity. Looking at pathways of empowerment in pre-conflict Sierra Leone, at experiences of women during the time of conflict over the course of a long and brutal civil war from 1991–2002, and at post-conflict possibilities, the article highlights some of the changes that have taken place in women’s lives and the avenues that are opening up in Sierra Leone in a time of peace. It suggests that understanding women’s pathways of empowerment in Sierra Leone calls for closer attention to be paid to the dynamics of conflict and post-conflict reconstruction, and to the significance of context in shaping constraints and opportunities

    INTEGRATED COMMUNITY CASE MANAGEMENT OF CHILDHOOD ILLNESSES IN THE CONTEXT OF FREE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE IN RURAL SIERRA LEONE: EFFECTS ON CARE SEEKING, TREATMENT AND EQUITY

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    Problem statement: Integrated community case management (ICCM) of childhood illnesses by community health workers (CHWs) is an endorsed strategy to reduce child mortality in developing countries. The evidence on the effectiveness of ICCM programs in Sub-Saharan Africa is growing; however, evidence on ICCM in the context of free health care is limited. Methods: The study examined: (1) CHW influences on pre-post changes in care seeking and treatment, analyzed using a difference-in-differences (DID) analysis; (2) factors associated with CHW utilization, analyzed using weighted logistic regression; and (3) ICCM effect on equitable coverage of care seeking and treatment by ethnicity and socioeconomic status, analyzed using comparative and DID analysis. Study districts were purposively selected; 2 intervention districts had ICCM by CHWs plus free facility care and 2 comparison districts with free facility care only. A household cluster survey was conducted among caregivers of 5,643 and 5,259 children U5 at baseline (2010) and endline (2012), respectively. Results: ICCM was associated with increased odds in appropriate treatment for pneumonia (OR=2.00, 95%CI: 1.20-3.35) and decreased odds in traditional treatment for diarrhea (OR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.21-0.95) and facility treatments for malaria (OR=0.21, 95%CI: 0.07-0.62). Though no effect on inequalities by wealth, ICCM was associated with increased odds in care seeking (OR=2.98, 95%CI: 1.60-5.54) and appropriate treatment (OR=2.15, 95%CI: 1.12-4.41) and decreased odds in traditional treatments (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.14-0.87) among children from ethnic groups other than Mende. ICCM was also associated with increased odds in care seeking (OR=2.17, 95%CI: 1.03-4.57) and appropriate treatment (OR=2.55, 95%CI: 1.24-5.27) among children whose caregivers reported some education and decreased odds in traditional treatment (OR=0.48, 95%CI: 0.23-0.99) among children whose caregivers reported no education. Conclusions: ICCM by CHWs was associated with some increases in appropriate treatment, reduced treatment burden at the facility level, and reduced reliance on traditional treatments. Children from disadvantaged groups also appeared to benefit most from ICCM. The availability of trained and supervised CHWs can be an asset to provision of free healthcare in Sierra Leone

    Effects of Fucoidan and Chemotherapeutic agent combinations on Malignant and Non-Malignant breast cell lines

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    Philosophiae Doctor - PhD (Medical BioScience)Breast cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies in women. Fucoidan (FUC) is a natural polysaccharide with anticancer properties. Despite a number of in vitro and in vivo studies reporting the efficacy of fucoidan in treating various cancers, few studies have measured the efficacy of fucoidan in combination with cancer drugs. Drugs like cisplatin, doxorubicin and taxol are important in breast cancer treatment. However, in recent years, supplements have gained importance in its treatment. Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide mainly found in brown algae and seaweed, is a new candidate for breast cancer therapy because of its antitumour activity. This study was aimed at determining the cytotoxic, apoptotic and cell cycle distribution effects of fucoidan and its synergistic and/or antagonistic effects in combination with cisplatin, doxorubicin and taxol in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, relative to the normal MCF-12A non-malignant breast epithelial cell line
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