43 research outputs found

    Absolute assignment in takāful industry: Sharī‘ah contracts, issues and solutions

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    This article deliberates on the Islamic contracts used in absolute assignment in takāful industry and identifies Sharī‘ah issues that might accrue from it. The article studies the market practice of absolute assignment in takāful industry in Malaysia and proposes the adequate Islamic contracts that can be used in absolute assignment and at the same time resolve any Sharī‘ah issues that might occur from it. This research consists of both library-based research and fieldwork research. The researchers interviewed some practitioners and studied the related documents and acts used in executing absolute assignment in takāful industry in Malaysia. The study infers that there are two types of absolute assignments. The first one is between an individual to an individual on the basis of hibah and the second one is between an individual and a financier/bank on the basis of kafālah

    The rights of a rape victim in Islamic Law

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    Rape victims undergo double jeopardy as they experience unwanted aggression against their freewill which make them suffer physically and mentally, and at the same time they have to fight to be treated fairly and respectfully within the legal environment. There has been a controversial issue regarding rape prosecution in Islamic legal system as the rape victim would be either charged with zina (illegal sexual intercourse) because of her confession or qadhf (false accusation) as a result of her failure to bring four male eyewitnesses. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental rights of rape victims provided in Islamic law. This will include legal rights to be defended fairly, exemption of punishment, adequate compensation, and other essential rights. This study will explore opinions and arguments of classical Muslim jurisprudents from various schools of law

    Kaedah-kaedah penting Usul Fiqh berdasarkan manhaj ahli hadis

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    Usul Fiqh adalah kaedah-kaedah hukum syarak, asas kepada fatwa-fatwa syarak, tumpuan ijtihad dan pengeluaran hukum dan undang-undang akal dan tarjih hukum. Usul Fiqh merupakan jalan untuk mempraktik dan mengekalkan pembukaan pintu ijtihad. Ini adalah kerana kurniaan Allah S.W.T tidak pernah terhenti dan khazanah-Nya tidak pernah kering dan ini berlainan sekali dengan pendapat golongan yang mendakwa pintu ijtihad sudah tertutup. Pada dasarnya ilmu Usul Fiqh dibina oleh ulama hadis dan kemudian dikembangkan oleh ulama usul. Begitu ramai sekali tokoh-tokoh yang menghasilkan karya berkaitan Usul Fiqh. Pendekatan yang digunakan juga kadang-kadang berlainan di antara ulama hadis dan ulama usul. Walaubagaimana pun perbezaannya tidak ketara. Salah seorang tokoh yang menghasil karya dalam memahami Usul Fiqh yang menggunakan pendekatan ulama hadis ialah Ustaz Zakariya bin Ghulam Qadir Al-Pakistani. Buku yang berjudul Usul Al-Fiqh Ala Manhaj Ahli Al-Hadis. Bentuk kaedah usul yang diketengahkan mudah difahami disertakan dengan sokongan daripada pakar Usul Fiqh dari kalangan ulama hadis. Karya beliau itu telah diringkaskan oleh penulis ke dalam Bahasa Melayu, bagi memudahkan kita memahami apa yang dibahaskan. Beberapa persoalan menarik juga diterang di dalam buku ini iaitu berkenaan ahli hadis,fiqh dalam ertikata sebenar dan memahami keadah-kaedah penting usul fiqh. Dengan kehadiran buku ini ilmu berkenaan Usul Fiqh itu terus subur dan diminati ramai. Buku sahaja di kalangan pelajar malah seluruh masyarakat Islam secara umumnya

    Distribution of underwriting surplus and investment profit from Tabarru’ fund: Shariah contracts applied and current market practice

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    Takaful is a contract whereby the participants commit to contribute an amount on regular basis or in one lump sum in a specified fund to mutually guarantee each other and appoint a body to act as the fund manager. In this contract, takaful participants have the opportunity to mitigate the possible financial risk that their families might encounter in case a misfortune happens to them. The contribution then will be placed into respective participant’s account or also known as Participants’ Investment Fund (PIF). The fund manager, i.e. takaful operator will drip from every PIF certain amount on the basis of donation into a collective Participants’ Risk Fund (PRF). Tabarru’ is Arabic word which means donation and due to the nature of PRF, it’s widely known in Islamic Finance as Tabarru’ Fund. Tabarru’ Fund is a separate entity from Takaful operator and participants, but t ownership remains with the participants. Being a fund, some money in it will be invested and would possibly realize investment profit. At the same time, with proper management of the Tabarru’ Fund, it might produce underwriting surplus after payment of claims at the end of financial year. There are several Shariah views and methods on the treatment of the investment profit and underwriting surplus generated from the fund. These views differ from one another depending on the contract adopted, which ultimately would define the permissibility of sharing the surplus between related parties. In Malaysia, the sharing of underwriting surplus is allowed according to the Shariah resolution passed by Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia) subject to certain guidelines. All eleven Takaful operators in Malaysia have different practices in distributing the surplus and profit with respect to Shariah contracts applied and operational treatments. This research will study these differences and provide recommendations on the identified issues

    Rover wheel assistive grouser shape effects on traction force in flat soft terrain

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    This paper presents the study of different grouser shapes on the performance of the assistive grouser wheel travelling on a flat surface loose soil terrain. This work is an extension from our previous work exploring the rover wheel assistive grouser angle of attack effects on traction force in soft terrain. Therefore, a new experiment involving the different grouser shapes on the assistive grouser wheel must be conducted to comprehend the interactions between the grouser and loose soil. From observation, the bulldozing effect of the assistive grouser is also influenced by the grouser shapes. Further understanding of the soil flow also effect of the grouser shape design in general. Hence, we have developed 4 different grouser shapes to be attached to the single wheel rover testbed to evaluate the effects of the shape to the performance of the assistive grouser wheel on a 0-degree slope loose soil surface. The grouser shapes consisted of Inverse Parallel, C-Shape, Inverse C-Shape and Inverse Chevron Shape. The average total traction force and current consumption was examined. It was observed during the grouser entering the sand surface, the sand piled up onto the grouser surface effecting the value of average total traction force. This was caused by surface area of the grouser. The more surface area of the assistive grouser, the more traction force generated to push the wheel forward. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that Inverse Parallel is the optimal grouser design for use as assistive grouser in wheeled rover on soft sand, as it has the lowest surface area and the lowest average total traction force. However, Inverse Chevron generated the least current consumption by the half-wheel rover. These results indicate that the traction force of the assistive grouser is not affected by shape, but the width and depth of the assistive grouser

    Rover wheel assistive grouser angle of attack effects on traction force in soft terrain

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    This paper presents the effects of different grouser angle of attacks on the traction performance of an assistive grouser wheel traversing on soft sandy terrain. This work is an extension from our previous work on assistive grousers attached to a rover wheel to improve performance on soft terrain, where traversing and climbing performance for wheeled rover is improved on steep slopes up to 30-degrees by using assistive grousers rather than conventional fixed grousers. Thus, new experiment correlated with the assistive grouser must be developed for further understanding of the sand-grouser interaction. It was observed that the performance of assistive grousers to reduce sinkage and generate forward traction is influenced by the assistive grousers angle of attack, shape and size. Consequently, for this study we developed a single wheel rover testbed to measure the effects of grouser angle of attack on traction force generated. Grouser attack angles that were experimented are 0,10,20,30 and 40-degrees, on a 0-degree slope sand surface. It was observed that during a grouser's movement, there are instances where a forward and backward traction was generated depending on the position of the grouser during wheel rotation. This was hypothesized to be caused by the imbalance in traction generation by the inner and outer side of the grouser, and also due to the variance in traction force generation by multiple grousers moving under the sand surface at the same time with different speed due to geometric constraints of the assistive grouser horizontal movement. It was concluded that for 0-degree slope, a 0-degree angle of attack is the most effective, and there is considerable effect of using multiple grousers and distance from the wheel on grouser traction generation. Results indicate that the shape of the grouser could increase the effectiveness of the grouser for a future study

    Monoglycrerides from 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid for the cosmetic industry.

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    Monoglycerides of dihydroxystearic acid (MGDHSA) were synthesized using an acid catalyst. Factors that may affect the esterification reaction such as reaction time and temperature were studied. Esterification of dihydroxystearic acid with excess glycerol by an acid catalyst at 150oC for 4 hr gave up to 40% yield of MGDHSA. The reaction product containing approximately 45% MGDHSA was found to be non-irritant to the skin, non-toxic to the aquatic environment and readily biodegradable. The toxicity value of MGDHSA was found to be more than 100 mg litre-1 while its biodegradability reached the pass level of 60% in 20 days. This compound is compatible with a wide variety of oils. MGDHSA seem to have better emulsifying properties in an oil-in-water (O/W) system with high water content compared to glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and glyceryl monohydroxystearate (MGHSA)
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