38 research outputs found

    The Robinson-Trautman Type III Prolongation Structure Contains K2_2

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    The minimal prolongation structure for the Robinson-Trautman equations of Petrov type III is shown to always include the infinite-dimensional, contragredient algebra, K2_2, which is of infinite growth. Knowledge of faithful representations of this algebra would allow the determination of B\"acklund transformations to evolve new solutions.Comment: 20 pages, plain TeX, no figures, submitted to Commun. Math. Phy

    Proof of a conjecture of Polya on the zeros of successive derivatives of real entire functions

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    We prove Polya's conjecture of 1943: For a real entire function of order greater than 2, with finitely many non-real zeros, the number of non-real zeros of the n-th derivative tends to infinity with n. We use the saddle point method and potential theory, combined with the theory of analytic functions with positive imaginary part in the upper half-plane.Comment: 26 page

    A functional model, eigenvalues, and finite singular critical points for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators

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    Eigenvalues in the essential spectrum of a weighted Sturm-Liouville operator are studied under the assumption that the weight function has one turning point. An abstract approach to the problem is given via a functional model for indefinite Sturm-Liouville operators. Algebraic multiplicities of eigenvalues are obtained. Also, operators with finite singular critical points are considered.Comment: 38 pages, Proposition 2.2 and its proof corrected, Remarks 2.5, 3.4, and 3.12 extended, details added in subsections 2.3 and 4.2, section 6 rearranged, typos corrected, references adde

    Self-dual noncommutative \phi^4-theory in four dimensions is a non-perturbatively solvable and non-trivial quantum field theory

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    We study quartic matrix models with partition function Z[E,J]=\int dM \exp(trace(JM-EM^2-(\lambda/4)M^4)). The integral is over the space of Hermitean NxN-matrices, the external matrix E encodes the dynamics, \lambda>0 is a scalar coupling constant and the matrix J is used to generate correlation functions. For E not a multiple of the identity matrix, we prove a universal algebraic recursion formula which gives all higher correlation functions in terms of the 2-point function and the distinct eigenvalues of E. The 2-point function itself satisfies a closed non-linear equation which must be solved case by case for given E. These results imply that if the 2-point function of a quartic matrix model is renormalisable by mass and wavefunction renormalisation, then the entire model is renormalisable and has vanishing \beta-function. As main application we prove that Euclidean \phi^4-quantum field theory on four-dimensional Moyal space with harmonic propagation, taken at its self-duality point and in the infinite volume limit, is exactly solvable and non-trivial. This model is a quartic matrix model, where E has for N->\infty the same spectrum as the Laplace operator in 4 dimensions. Using the theory of singular integral equations of Carleman type we compute (for N->\infty and after renormalisation of E,\lambda) the free energy density (1/volume)\log(Z[E,J]/Z[E,0]) exactly in terms of the solution of a non-linear integral equation. Existence of a solution is proved via the Schauder fixed point theorem. The derivation of the non-linear integral equation relies on an assumption which we verified numerically for coupling constants 0<\lambda\leq (1/\pi).Comment: LaTeX, 64 pages, xypic figures. v4: We prove that recursion formulae and vanishing of \beta-function hold for general quartic matrix models. v3: We add the existence proof for a solution of the non-linear integral equation. A rescaling of matrix indices was necessary. v2: We provide Schwinger-Dyson equations for all correlation functions and prove an algebraic recursion formula for their solutio

    Spectral Asymptotics for Perturbed Spherical Schr\"odinger Operators and Applications to Quantum Scattering

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    We find the high energy asymptotics for the singular Weyl--Titchmarsh m-functions and the associated spectral measures of perturbed spherical Schr\"odinger operators (also known as Bessel operators). We apply this result to establish an improved local Borg-Marchenko theorem for Bessel operators as well as uniqueness theorems for the radial quantum scattering problem with nontrivial angular momentum.Comment: 20 page

    Active Brownian Particles. From Individual to Collective Stochastic Dynamics

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    We review theoretical models of individual motility as well as collective dynamics and pattern formation of active particles. We focus on simple models of active dynamics with a particular emphasis on nonlinear and stochastic dynamics of such self-propelled entities in the framework of statistical mechanics. Examples of such active units in complex physico-chemical and biological systems are chemically powered nano-rods, localized patterns in reaction-diffusion system, motile cells or macroscopic animals. Based on the description of individual motion of point-like active particles by stochastic differential equations, we discuss different velocity-dependent friction functions, the impact of various types of fluctuations and calculate characteristic observables such as stationary velocity distributions or diffusion coefficients. Finally, we consider not only the free and confined individual active dynamics but also different types of interaction between active particles. The resulting collective dynamical behavior of large assemblies and aggregates of active units is discussed and an overview over some recent results on spatiotemporal pattern formation in such systems is given.Comment: 161 pages, Review, Eur Phys J Special-Topics, accepte

    Real Roots of Random Polynomials and Zero Crossing Properties of Diffusion Equation

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    We study various statistical properties of real roots of three different classes of random polynomials which recently attracted a vivid interest in the context of probability theory and quantum chaos. We first focus on gap probabilities on the real axis, i.e. the probability that these polynomials have no real root in a given interval. For generalized Kac polynomials, indexed by an integer d, of large degree n, one finds that the probability of no real root in the interval [0,1] decays as a power law n^{-\theta(d)} where \theta(d) > 0 is the persistence exponent of the diffusion equation with random initial conditions in spatial dimension d. For n \gg 1 even, the probability that they have no real root on the full real axis decays like n^{-2(\theta(2)+\theta(d))}. For Weyl polynomials and Binomial polynomials, this probability decays respectively like \exp{(-2\theta_{\infty}} \sqrt{n}) and \exp{(-\pi \theta_{\infty} \sqrt{n})} where \theta_{\infty} is such that \theta(d) = 2^{-3/2} \theta_{\infty} \sqrt{d} in large dimension d. We also show that the probability that such polynomials have exactly k roots on a given interval [a,b] has a scaling form given by \exp{(-N_{ab} \tilde \phi(k/N_{ab}))} where N_{ab} is the mean number of real roots in [a,b] and \tilde \phi(x) a universal scaling function. We develop a simple Mean Field (MF) theory reproducing qualitatively these scaling behaviors, and improve systematically this MF approach using the method of persistence with partial survival, which in some cases yields exact results. Finally, we show that the probability density function of the largest absolute value of the real roots has a universal algebraic tail with exponent {-2}. These analytical results are confirmed by detailed numerical computations.Comment: 32 pages, 16 figure

    Renormalization group flows and continual Lie algebras

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    We study the renormalization group flows of two-dimensional metrics in sigma models and demonstrate that they provide a continual analogue of the Toda field equations based on the infinite dimensional algebra G(d/dt;1). The resulting Toda field equation is a non-linear generalization of the heat equation, which is integrable in target space and shares the same dissipative properties in time. We provide the general solution of the renormalization group flows in terms of free fields, via Backlund transformations, and present some simple examples that illustrate the validity of their formal power series expansion in terms of algebraic data. We study in detail the sausage model that arises as geometric deformation of the O(3) sigma model, and give a new interpretation to its ultra-violet limit by gluing together two copies of Witten's two-dimensional black hole in the asymptotic region. We also provide some new solutions that describe the renormalization group flow of negatively curved spaces in different patches, which look like a cane in the infra-red region. Finally, we revisit the transition of a flat cone C/Z_n to the plane, as another special solution, and note that tachyon condensation in closed string theory exhibits a hidden relation to the infinite dimensional algebra G(d/dt;1) in the regime of gravity. Its exponential growth holds the key for the construction of conserved currents and their systematic interpretation in string theory, but they still remain unknown.Comment: latex, 73pp including 14 eps fig

    Two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

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    This survey article contains various aspects of the direct and inverse spectral problem for twodimensional Hamiltonian systems, that is, two dimensional canonical systems of homogeneous differential equations of the form Jy'(x) = -zH(x)y(x); x ∈ [0;L); 0 < L ≀ ∞; z ∈ C; with a real non-negative definite matrix function H ≄ 0 and a signature matrix J, and with a standard boundary condition of the form y1(0+) = 0. Additionally it is assumed that Weyl's limit point case prevails at L. In this case the spectrum of the canonical system is determined by its Titchmarsh-Weyl coefficient Q which is a Nevanlinna function, that is, a function which maps the upper complex half-plane analytically into itself. In this article an outline of the Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for Hamiltonian systems is given and the solution of the direct spectral problem is shown. Moreover, Hamiltonian systems comprehend the class of differential equations of vibrating strings with a non-homogenous mass-distribution function as considered by M.G. Krein. The inverse spectral problem for two{dimensional Hamiltonian systems was solved by L. de Branges by use of his theory of Hilbert spaces of entire functions, showing that each Nevanlinna function is the Titchmarsh-Weyl coefficient of a uniquely determined normed Hamiltonian. More detailed results of this connection for e.g. systems with a semibounded or discrete or finite spectrum are presented, and also some results concerning spectral perturbation, which allow an explicit solution of the inverse spectral problem in many cases

    On the positivity of the string operator

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