1,425 research outputs found

    Bose-Einstein Condensation and strong-correlation behavior of phonons in ion traps

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    We show that the dynamics of phonons in a set of trapped ions interacting with lasers is described by a Bose-Hubbard model whose parameters can be externally adjusted. We investigate the possibility of observing several quantum many-body phenomena, including (quasi) Bose-Einstein condensation as well as a superfluid-Mott insulator quantum phase transition.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

    Quantum phases of interacting phonons in ion traps

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    The vibrations of a chain of trapped ions can be considered, under suitable experimental conditions, as an ensemble of interacting phonons, whose quantum dynamics is governed by a Bose--Hubbard Hamiltonian. In this work we study the quantum phases which appear in this system, and show that thermodynamical properties, such as critical parameters and critical exponents, can be measured in experiments with a limited number of ions. Besides that, interacting phonons in trapped ions offer us the possibility to access regimes which are difficult to study with ultracold bosons in optical lattices, like models with attractive or site--dependent phonon-phonon interactions.Comment: 10 page

    Zeno dynamics in wave-packet diffraction spreading

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    We analyze a simple and feasible practical scheme displaying Zeno, anti-Zeno, and inverse-Zeno effects in the observation of wave-packet spreading caused by free evolution. The scheme is valid both in spatial diffraction of classical optical waves and in time diffraction of a quantum wave packet. In the optical realization, diffraction spreading is observed by placing slits between a light source and a light-power detector. We show that the occurrence of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects depends just on the frequency of observations between the source and detector. These effects are seen to be related to the diffraction mode theory in Fabry-Perot resonators.Comment: 7 pages, 8 figure

    DMRG and periodic boundary conditions: a quantum information perspective

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    We introduce a picture to analyze the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) numerical method from a quantum information perspective. This leads us to introduce some modifications for problems with periodic boundary conditions in which the results are dramatically improved. The picture also explains some features of the method in terms of entanglement and teleportation.Comment: 4 page

    Mesoscopic Spin-Boson Models of Trapped Ions

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    Trapped ions arranged in Coulomb crystals provide us with the elements to study the physics of a single spin coupled to a boson bath. In this work we show that optical forces allow us to realize a variety of spin-boson models, depending on the crystal geometry and the laser configuration. We study in detail the Ohmic case, which can be implemented by illuminating a single ion with a travelling wave. The mesoscopic character of the phonon bath in trapped ions induces new effects like the appearance of quantum revivals in the spin evolution.Comment: 4.4 pages, 5 figure

    Collective generation of quantum states of light by entangled atoms

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    We present a theoretical framework to describe the collective emission of light by entangled atomic states. Our theory applies to the low excitation regime, where most of the atoms are initially in the ground state, and relies on a bosonic description of the atomic excitations. In this way, the problem of light emission by an ensemble of atoms can be solved exactly, including dipole-dipole interactions and multiple light scattering. Explicit expressions for the emitted photonic states are obtained in several situations, such as those of atoms in regular lattices and atomic vapors. We determine the directionality of the photonic beam, the purity of the photonic state, and the renormalization of the emission rates. We also show how to observe collective phenomena with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, and how to use these ideas to generate photonic states that are useful in the context of quantum information.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figure

    Root-associated fungal communities colonizing two dominant semiarid grasses: Hilaria sp. and Stipa sp.

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    We conducted a preliminary survey of the fungal communities associated with roots of Stipa hymenoides and Hilaria jamesii, two grasses native to the southwestern United States. Root samples from 10 different plants were collected at a semiarid grassland in Utah. Fungal communities were assessed using microscopic and molecular methods. Roots were cleared with KOH and stained using blue ink to visualize mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. A total of 100 root segments were surface sterilized and plated on malt extract agar with antibiotics. Fungal endophytes were identified using nrITS primers.

Results/Conclusions

Microscopic analyses showed that all root samples from both Hillaria and Stipa were colonized by dark septate and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Vesicles and hyaline hyphae also were observed in all the roots. Sclerotia, a characteristic structure of some dark septate fungi were also found. Approximately 75 fungi were isolated representing at least 45 morphotypes. Molecular identification showed that both grasses are colonized by endophytes in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, and Sordariales commonly found in semiarid grasses, liverworts, and mosses

    Convolutional Goppa Codes

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    We define Convolutional Goppa Codes over algebraic curves and construct their corresponding dual codes. Examples over the projective line and over elliptic curves are described, obtaining in particular some Maximum-Distance Separable (MDS) convolutional codes.Comment: 8 pages, submitted to IEEE Trans. Inform. Theor
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