42 research outputs found

    Components of Antineutrino Emission in Nuclear Reactor

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    New νˉe,e{\bar{\nu}_e},e scattering experiments aimed for sensitive searches of the νe{\nu}_e magnetic moment and projects to explore small mixing angle oscillations at reactors call for a better understanding of the reactor antineutrino spectrum. Here we consider six components, which contribute to the total νˉe{\bar{\nu}_e} spectrum generated in nuclear reactor. They are: beta decay of the fission fragments of 235^{235}U, 239^{239}Pu, 238^{238}U and 241^{241}Pu, decay of beta-emitters produced as a result of neutron capture in 238^{238}U and also due to neutron capture in accumulated fission fragments which perturbs the spectrum. For antineutrino energies less than 3.5 MeV we tabulate evolution of νˉe{\bar{\nu}_e} spectra corresponding to each of the four fissile isotopes vs fuel irradiation time and their decay after the irradiation is stopped and also estimate relevant uncertainties. Small corrections to the ILL spectra are considered.Comment: LaTex 8 pages, 2 ps figure

    Calculation of the lidar signal by the DDA method applied to the data of satellite remote sensing of cirrus clouds for climate change detection

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    The purpose of this work is to solve an important issue: the light scattering problem for ice crystals of cirrus clouds less than 10 μm and matching the obtained solution with the existing solution obtained within the physical optics approximation. The article presents a solution to the problem of light scattering by hexagonal ice particles of cirrus clouds with sizes from 0.05 to 5.17 μm for a wavelength 0.532 μm, obtained within the discrete dipole approximation. It is found that the obtained solution is in good agreement with the physical optics approximation in the vicinity of scattering angles of 0–10є (the vicinity of forward direction scattering). However, to solve the problem of light scattering in the vicinity of the backward scattering direction, which is important for the interpretation of lidar data, it is necessary to continue the calculations to sizes of the order of 20 μm. The results obtained are necessary for constructing algorithms for the interpretation of lidar data obtained by sounding cirrus clouds

    Parasite stress and pathogen avoidance relate to distinct dimensions of political ideology across 30 nations

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    People who are more avoidant of pathogens are more politically conservative, as are nations with greater parasite stress. In the current research, we test two prominent hypotheses that have been proposed as explanations for these relationships. The first, which is an intragroup account, holds that these relationships between pathogens and politics are based on motivations to adhere to local norms, which are sometimes shaped by cultural evolution to have pathogenneutralizing properties. The second, which is an intergroup account, holds that these same relationships are based on motivations to avoid contact with outgroups, who might pose greater infectious disease threats than ingroup members. Results from a study surveying 11,501 participants across 30 nations are more consistent with the intragroup account than with the intergroup account. National parasite stress relates to traditionalism (an aspect of conservatism especially related to adherence to group norms) but not to social dominance orientation (SDO; an aspect of conservatism especially related to endorsements of intergroup barriers and negativity toward ethnic and racial outgroups). Further, individual differences in pathogen-avoidance motives (i.e., disgust sensitivity) relate more strongly to traditionalism than to SDO within the 30 nations

    Spatial correlation function of the intensity in multiple scattering

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    The Crucible simulation: Behavioral simulation improves clinical leadership skills and understanding of complex health policy change.

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    BACKGROUND: The Health and Social Care Act 2012 represents the most complex National Health Service reforms in history. High-quality clinical leadership is important for successful implementation of health service reform. However, little is known about the effectiveness of current leadership training. PURPOSE: This study describes the use of a behavioral simulation to improve the knowledge and leadership of a cohort of medical doctors expected to take leadership roles in the National Health Service. METHODOLOGY: A day-long behavioral simulation (The Crucible) was developed and run based on a fictitious but realistic health economy. Participants completed pre- and postsimulation questionnaires generating qualitative and quantitative data. Leadership skills, knowledge, and behavior change processes described by the "theory of planned behavior" were self-assessed pre- and postsimulation. RESULTS: Sixty-nine medical doctors attended. Participants deemed the simulation immersive and relevant. Significant improvements were shown in perceived knowledge, capability, attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and leadership competency following the program. Nearly one third of participants reported that they had implemented knowledge and skills from the simulation into practice within 4 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: This study systematically demonstrates the effectiveness of behavioral simulation for clinical management training and understanding of health policy reform. Potential future uses and strategies for analysis are discussed. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: High-quality care requires understanding of health systems and strong leadership. Policymakers should consider the use of behavioral simulation to improve understanding of health service reform and development of leadership skills in clinicians, who readily adopt skills from simulation into everyday practice