7 research outputs found

    Harnessing the Interplay between Photonic Resonances and Carrier Extraction for Narrowband Germanium Nanowire Photodetectors Spanning the Visible to Infrared

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    At visible wavelengths, photodetection in three channels (red, green, and blue) enables color imaging. Yet the spectra of most materials provide richer information than just color, and therefore considerable interest exists for imaging with multiple spectral bands across the visible to infrared. This endeavor requires narrowband photodetection, which is generally achieved by combining broadband photodetectors with filters or spectrometers, but with added bulk and cost. Here we report, for the first time to our knowledge, vertical germanium nanowires as narrowband photodetectors. Our devices exhibit spectral response peaks that are as narrow as 40 nm and can be shifted from visible (∼600 nm) to infrared (∼1600 nm) wavelengths by appropriate design. The spectral selectivity arises from the nanowires acting as waveguides and, surprisingly, is enhanced by radial narrowing of the carrier collection region due to surface recombination. The incorporation of germanium into integrated circuits in a high-yield and cost-effective manner is well-established, making our approach promising for many detection applications

    Effect of CDCA on de novo synthesis of HIF-1α protein.

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    <p>(A) Experimental scheme. After serum starvation for 20 hr, HepG2 cells were pretreated with DMSO or CDCA (100μM), 30 min prior to MG132 (10 μM) treatment. (B) Western analyses of HIF-1α and β-actin proteins (three western blots are shown). (C) Experimental scheme. HepG2 cells were pretreated with CHX (10 μg/ml, 3 hr), then the culture media were replaced with fresh media containing MG132 (10 μM) and/or CDCA (100 μM) as indicated. (D) Western analyses of HIF-1α and β-actin proteins (three western blots are shown). Quantification of western analyses. The intensities of HIF-1α and β-actin bands marked with bars were measured using Image J software. The y-axis indicates the relative band intensities of HIF-1α protein to 0 hr. The band intensities of HIF-1α protein were normalized by β-actin protein. The x-axis indicates the hours for MG132 treatments. <i>p</i> values between band intensities of CDCA-treated and untreated samples are shown. a, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.1; b, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05; c, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01; d, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001; e, <i>p</i> = 0.251.</p

    Si Microwire Solar Cells: Improved Efficiency with a Conformal SiO<sub>2</sub> Layer

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    Silicon microwire arrays have attracted considerable attention recently due to the opportunity they present as highly efficient and cost-effective solar cells. In this study, we report on efficient Si microwire array solar cells with areas of 1 cm<sup>2</sup> and Air Mass 1.5 Global conversion efficiencies of up to 10.6%. These solar cells show an open-circuit voltage of 0.56 V, a short-circuit current density of 25.2 mA/cm<sup>2</sup>, and a fill factor of 75.2%, with a silicon absorption region that is only 25 μm thick. In particular, the maximum overall efficiency of the champion device is improved from 8.71% to 10.6% by conformally coating the wires with a 200 nm thick SiO<sub>2</sub> layer. Optical measurements reveal that the layer reduces reflection significantly over the entire visible range

    Effect of CDCA on hypoxic target genes.

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    <p>(A) Experimental scheme. HepG2 cells were serum starved with medium containing 0.5% FBS for 20 hours prior to CDCA (100 μM or indicated dose) treatment. 6 hours after CDCA treatment, the cells were exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for the indicated hours. (B) Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of SHP mRNA. The expression level was normalized with the expression level of 18s rRNA. (C) Western analyses for SHP and β-actin. β-actin protein was detected as a loading control. Data shown are representative of three experiments (C) Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), phosphoglycerate kinase1 (PGK1), endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-like (EROL1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha peptide 1 (P4HA1). a, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.1; b, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05; c, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01; d, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001; e, <i>p</i> = 0.197; f, <i>p</i> = 0.724.</p

    Filter-Free Image Sensor Pixels Comprising Silicon Nanowires with Selective Color Absorption

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    The organic dye filters of conventional color image sensors achieve the red/green/blue response needed for color imaging, but have disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. Here, we report a new paradigm for color imaging based on all-silicon nanowire devices and no filters. We fabricate pixels consisting of vertical silicon nanowires with integrated photodetectors, demonstrate that their spectral sensitivities are governed by nanowire radius, and perform color imaging. Our approach is conceptually different from filter-based methods, as absorbed light is converted to photocurrent, ultimately presenting the opportunity for very high photon efficiency

    Effect of CDCA on HIF-1α expression.

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    <p>After starvation for 20hr, HepG2 cells were pretreated with CDCA (100 μM or indicated dose) for 6 hours then exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for the indicated hours. (A) Western analyses for HIF-1α, 14-3-3γ and β-actin proteins. 14-3-3γ and β-actin proteins were detected as loading controls. (B) Quantitative RT-PCR of HIF-1α mRNA. (C and D) Western analyses of HIF-1α protein. HepG2 cells which were serum starved with medium containing 0.5% FBS for 20 hours prior to stimulation with MG132 (10 μM) and/or CDCA. 6 hours after treatment, the cells were exposed to 20% or 5% O<sub>2</sub> for 4 hours. Ubiquitinated and original HIF-1α proteins are indicated. HDAC1 protein or β-actin protein were examined in order to verify equal loading. (D) 20 μg of MG132 untreated total cell extracts and 5 μg of MG132 treated total cell extracts are loaded, respectively.</p

    Effects of SHP or GW4064 on HIF-1α expression.

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    <p>(A and B) HepG2 cells were transfected with an empty vector or pcDNA3/HA-SHP. 18 hours after transfection, the cells were serum starved with medium containing 0.5% FBS for 20 hours. The cells were treated DMSO or 100 μM of CDCA for 6 hours in the absence or presence of MG132 and then exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for 4 hours. 30 μg of total cell extracts are loaded for western analyses. (C to E) After starvation for 20hr, HepG2 cells were pretreated with GW4064 (GW) (5 μM or indicated dose) for 6 hours then exposed to 20%, 5% or 0.1% O<sub>2</sub> for the indicated hours. (C and E) qRT-PCR analyses of SHP or HIF-1α respectively. The expression level was normalized with the expression level of 18s rRNA. a, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.1; b, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.05; c, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.01; d, <i>p</i> ≤ 0.001. (D) Western analyses of HIF-1α, SHP and β-actin. (F) Western analyses of HIF-1α and β-actin in HepG2 cells which were treated with indicated doses of GW4064 and MG132 as described above. Ubiquitinated and original HIF-1α proteins are indicated. β-actin protein were examined in order to verify equal loading.</p
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