4 research outputs found

    Electrically-evoked responses for retinal prostheses are differentially altered depending on ganglion cell types in outer retinal neurodegeneration caused by Crb1 gene mutation

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    BackgroundMicroelectronic prostheses for artificial vision stimulate neurons surviving outer retinal neurodegeneration such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Yet, the quality of prosthetic vision substantially varies across subjects, maybe due to different levels of retinal degeneration and/or distinct genotypes. Although the RP genotypes are remarkably diverse, prosthetic studies have primarily used retinal degeneration (rd) 1 and 10 mice, which both have Pde6b gene mutation. Here, we report the electric responses arising in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the rd8 mouse model which has Crb1 mutation.MethodsWe first investigated age-dependent histological changes of wild-type (wt), rd8, and rd10 mice retinas by H&E staining. Then, we used cell-attached patch clamping to record spiking responses of ON, OFF and direction selective (DS) types of RGCs to a 4-ms-long electric pulse. The electric responses of rd8 RGCs were analyzed in comparison with those of wt RGCs in terms of individual RGC spiking patterns, populational characteristics, and spiking consistency across trials.ResultsIn the histological examination, the rd8 mice showed partial retinal foldings, but the outer nuclear layer thicknesses remained comparable to those of the wt mice, indicating the early-stage of RP. Although spiking patterns of each RGC type seemed similar to those of the wt retinas, correlation levels between electric vs. light response features were different across the two mouse models. For example, in comparisons between light vs. electric response magnitudes, ON/OFF RGCs of the rd8 mice showed the same/opposite correlation polarity with those of wt mice, respectively. Also, the electric response spike counts of DS RGCs in the rd8 retinas showed a positive correlation with their direction selectivity indices (r = 0.40), while those of the wt retinas were negatively correlated (r = −0.90). Lastly, the spiking timing consistencies of late responses were largely decreased in both ON and OFF RGCs in the rd8 than the wt retinas, whereas no significant difference was found across DS RGCs of the two models.ConclusionOur results indicate the electric response features are altered depending on RGC types even from the early-stage RP caused by Crb1 mutation. Given the various degeneration patterns depending on mutation genes, our study suggests the importance of both genotype- and RGC type-dependent analyses for retinal prosthetic research

    Self-Power Dynamic Sensor Based on Triboelectrification for Tilt of Direction and Angle

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    With the great development of the Internet of Things (IoT), the use of sensors have increased rapidly because of the importance in the connection between machines and people. A huge number of IoT sensors consume vast amounts of electrical power for stable operation and they are also used for a wide range of applications. Therefore, sensors need to operate independently, sustainably, and wirelessly to improve their capabilities. In this paper, we propose an orientation and the tilt triboelectric sensor (OT-TES) as a self-powered active sensor, which can simultaneously sense the tilting direction and angle by using the two classical principles of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. The OT-TES device consists of a rectangular acrylic box containing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) balls moved by gravity. The output voltage and current were 2 V and 20 nA, respectively, with a PTFE ball and Al electrode. The multi-channel system was adopted for measuring the degree and direction of tilt by integrating the results of measured electrical signals from the eight electrodes. This OT-TES can be attached on the equipment for drones or divers to measure their stability. As a result, this proposed device is expected to expand the field of TES, as a sensor for sky and the underwater

    Omnidirectional Triboelectric Nanogenerator Operated by Weak Wind towards a Self-Powered Anemoscope

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    Wind is a great sustainable energy source for harvesting due to its abundant characteristic. Typically, large space, loud noise, and heavy equipment are essential for a general wind power plant and it is solely operated by big-scale wind. However, wind energy can be efficiently harvested by utilizing the triboelectric nanogenerator due to its abundance, ubiquity, and environmentally friendliness. Furthermore, a few previously reported wind-driven triboelectric nanogenerators, which have the bulk fluttering layer by wind, still show difficulty in generating electricity under the conditions of weak wind because of the static friction arisen from the inherent structure. In this case, the output performance is deteriorated as well as the generator cannot operate completely. In this work, a wind-driven triboelectric nanogenerator (wind-TENG) based on the fluttering of the PTFE strips is proposed to solve the aforementioned problems. At the minimum operating wind pressure of 0.05 MPa, this wind-driven TENG delivers the open-circuit voltage of 3.5 V, short-circuit current of 300 nA, and the associated output power density of 0.64 mW/m2 at the external load resistance of 5 MΩ. Such conditions can be used to light up seven LEDs. Moreover, this wind-TENG has been utilized as a direction sensor which can sense the direction at which the wind is applied. This work thus provides the potential application of the wind-TENG as both self-driven electronics and a self-powered sensor system for detecting the direction under environmental wind

    Non-fullerene acceptor based photoelectric material for retinal prosthesis

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    Abstract Microelectronic retinal implants can restore a useful level of artificial vision in photoreceptor-damaged retina. Previously commercialized retinal prostheses require transocular connection lines to an external power supply and/or for data transmission, which are unwieldy and may cause unwanted side effects, such as infections. A recently reported wireless device used a rigid silicon substrate. However, it had the potential for a long-term mechanical mismatch with soft retinal tissue. In this work, we used organic photovoltaic materials which can be fabricated on flexible substrates as well as be operated without any physical connection to the external world. The present study employed PCE10 as an active layer for retinal prosthetic application for the first time. Compared to previously studied organic photovoltaic materials used in retinal prosthesis research (such as P3HT), our PCE10 devices showed higher efficiency, providing a huge advantage in this field. When the PCE10 was blended with other non-fullerene acceptors achieving a ternary organic photovoltaic layer (PCE10:ITIC:Y6 blend), it showed lower reduction of photocurrent under same irradiation frequency condition. The fabrication method for our organic photovoltaic device was simple and easy to control its thickness. The fabricated devices showed adequate photocurrent to stimulate the retinal neurons with a smaller reduction in generated photocurrent during repeating stimuli compared to P3HT or PCE10 alone.Author names: Please confirm if the author names are presented accurately and in the correct sequence (given name, middle name/initial, family name). Author: Given name [Jae Young] Last name [Kim]. Author: Given name [Byung Chul] Last name [Lee].Yes, they are correct