163,215 research outputs found

    Identification of perturbation modes and controversies in ekpyrotic perturbations

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    If the linear perturbation theory is valid through the bounce, the surviving fluctuations from the ekpyrotic scenario (cyclic one as well) should have very blue spectra with suppressed amplitude for the scalar-type structure. We derive the same (and consistent) result using the curvature perturbation in the uniform-field (comoving) gauge and in the zero-shear gauge. Previously, Khoury et al. interpreted results from the latter gauge condition incorrectly and claimed the scale-invariant spectrum, thus generating controversy in the literature. We also correct similar errors in the literature based on wrong mode identification and joining condition. No joining condition is needed for the derivation.Comment: 5 pages, substantially revised, match with PLB versio

    Fully nonlinear and exact perturbations of the Friedmann world model

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    In 1988 Bardeen has suggested a pragmatic formulation of cosmological perturbation theory which is powerful in practice to employ various fundamental gauge conditions easily depending on the character of the problem. The perturbation equations are presented without fixing the temporal gauge condition and are arranged so that one can easily impose fundamental gauge conditions by simply setting one of the perturbation variables in the equations equal to zero. In this way one can use the gauge degrees of freedom as an advantage in handling problems. Except for the synchronous gauge condition, all the other fundamental gauge conditions completely fix the gauge mode, and consequently, each variable in such a gauge has a unique gauge invariant counterpart, so that we can identify the variable as the gauge-invariant one. Here, we extend Bardeen's linear formulation to fully nonlinear order in perturbations, with the gauge advantage kept intact. Derived equations are exact, and from these we can easily expand to higher order perturbations in a gauge-ready form. We consider scalar- and vector-type perturbations of an ideal fluid in a flat background; we also present the multiple components of ideal fluid case. As applications we present fully nonlinear density and velocity perturbation equations in Einstein's gravity in the zero-pressure medium, vorticity generation from pure scalar-type perturbation, and fluid formulation of a minimally coupled scalar field, all in the comoving gauge. We also present the equation of gravitational waves generated from pure scalar- and vector-type perturbations.Comment: 23 pages, to appear in MNRA

    Moisture-triggered physically transient electronics

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    Physically transient electronics, a form of electronics that can physically disappear in a controllable manner, is very promising for emerging applications. Most of the transient processes reported so far only occur in aqueous solutions or biofluids, offering limited control over the triggering and degradation processes. We report novel moisture-triggered physically transient electronics, which exempt the needs of resorption solutions and can completely disappear within well-controlled time frames. The triggered transient process starts with the hydrolysis of the polyanhydride substrate in the presence of trace amounts of moisture in the air, a process that can generate products of corrosive organic acids to digest various inorganic electronic materials and components. Polyanhydride is the only example of polymer that undergoes surface erosion, a distinct feature that enables stable operation of the functional devices over a predefined time frame. Clear advantages of this novel triggered transience mode include that the lifetime of the devices can be precisely controlled by varying the moisture levels and changing the composition of the polymer substrate. The transience time scale can be tuned from days to weeks. Various transient devices, ranging from passive electronics (such as antenna, resistor, and capacitor) to active electronics ( such as transistor, diodes, optoelectronics, and memories), and an integrated system as a platform demonstration have been developed to illustrate the concept and verify the feasibility of this design strategy

    Conserved cosmological structures in the one-loop superstring effective action

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    A generic form of low-energy effective action of superstring theories with one-loop quantum correction is well known. Based on this action we derive the complete perturbation equations and general analytic solutions in the cosmological spacetime. Using the solutions we identify conserved quantities characterizing the perturbations: the amplitude of gravitational wave and the perturbed three-space curvature in the uniform-field gauge both in the large-scale limit, and the angular-momentum of rotational perturbation are conserved independently of changing gravity sector. Implications for calculating perturbation spectra generated in the inflation era based on the string action are presented.Comment: 5 pages, no figure, To appear in Phys. Rev.

    Base manifolds for fibrations of projective irreducible symplectic manifolds

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    Given a projective irreducible symplectic manifold MM of dimension 2n2n, a projective manifold XX and a surjective holomorphic map f:MXf:M \to X with connected fibers of positive dimension, we prove that XX is biholomorphic to the projective space of dimension nn. The proof is obtained by exploiting two geometric structures at general points of XX: the affine structure arising from the action variables of the Lagrangian fibration ff and the structure defined by the variety of minimal rational tangents on the Fano manifold XX

    Quantum fluctuations of Cosmological Perturbations in Generalized Gravity

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    Recently, we presented a unified way of analysing classical cosmological perturbation in generalized gravity theories. In this paper, we derive the perturbation spectrums generated from quantum fluctuations again in unified forms. We consider a situation where an accelerated expansion phase of the early universe is realized in a particular generic phase of the generalized gravity. We take the perturbative semiclassical approximation which treats the perturbed parts of the metric and matter fields as quantum mechanical operators. Our generic results include the conventional power-law and exponential inflations in Einstein's gravity as special cases.Comment: 5 pages, revtex, no figure