84 research outputs found

    Six-minute walk distance after coronary artery bypass grafting compared with medical therapy in ischaemic cardiomyopathy

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    Background: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may decrease mortality, but it is not known whether CABG improves functional capacity. Objective: To determine whether CABG compared with medical therapy alone (MED) increases 6 min walk distance in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease amenable to revascularisation. Methods: The Surgical Treatment in Ischemic Heart disease trial randomised 1212 patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction to CABG or MED. A 6 min walk distance test was performed both at baseline and at least one follow-up assessment at 4, 12, 24 and/or 36 months in 409 patients randomised to CABG and 466 to MED. Change in 6 min walk distance between baseline and follow-up were compared by treatment allocation. Results: 6 min walk distance at baseline for CABG was mean 340±117 m and for MED 339±118 m. Change in walk distance from baseline was similar for CABG and MED groups at 4 months (mean +38 vs +28 m), 12 months (+47 vs +36 m), 24 months (+31 vs +34 m) and 36 months (−7 vs +7 m), P>0.10 for all. Change in walk distance between CABG and MED groups over all assessments was also similar after adjusting for covariates and imputation for missing values (+8 m, 95% CI −7 to 23 m, P=0.29). Results were consistent for subgroups defined by angina, New York Heart Association class ≥3, left ventricular ejection fraction, baseline walk distance and geographic region. Conclusion: In patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction CABG compared with MED alone is known to reduce mortality but is unlikely to result in a clinically significant improvement in functional capacity

    Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Feature Tracking for Strain Calculation With Harmonic Phase Imaging Analysis

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    ObjectivesTo compare a steady-state free precession cine sequence–based technique (feature tracking [FT]) to tagged harmonic phase (HARP) analysis for peak average circumferential myocardial strain (εcc) analysis in a large and heterogeneous population of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).BackgroundCurrent εcc assessment techniques require cardiac magnetic resonance–tagged imaging sequences, and their analysis is complex. The FT method can readily be performed on standard cine (steady-state free precession) sequences.MethodsWe compared mid-left ventricular whole-slice εcc by the 2 techniques in 191 DMD patients grouped according to age and severity of cardiac dysfunction: group B: DMD patients 10 years and younger with normal ejection fraction (EF); group C: DMD patients older than 10 years with normal EF; group D: DMD patients older than 10 years with reduced EF but negative myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE); group E: DMD patients older than 10 years with reduced EF and positive MDE; and group A: 42 control subjects. Retrospective, offline analysis was performed on matched tagged and steady-state free precession slices.ResultsFor the entire study population (N = 233), mean FT εcc values (−13.3 ± 3.8%) were highly correlated with HARP εcc values (−13.6 ± 3.4%), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.899. The mean εcc of DMD patients determined by HARP (−12.52 ± 2.69%) and FT (−12.16 ± 3.12%) was not significantly different (p = NS). Similarly, the mean εcc of the control subjects by determined HARP (−18.85 ± 1.86) and FT (−18.81 ± 1.83) was not significantly different (p = NS). Excellent correlation between the 2 methods was found among subgroups A through E, except there was no significant difference in strain between groups B and C with FT analysis.ConclusionsFT-based assessment of εcc correlates highly with εcc derived from tagged images in a large DMD patient population with a wide range of cardiac dysfunction and can be performed without additional imaging

    Presence of mechanical dyssynchrony in duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Cardiac dysfunction in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a leading cause of death. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to dramatically decrease mortality in eligible adult population with congestive heart failure. We hypothesized that mechanical dyssynchrony is present in DMD patients and that cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may predict CRT efficacy.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>DMD patients (n = 236) were stratified into 4 groups based on age, diagnosis of DMD, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), and presence of myocardial fibrosis defined as positive late gadolinum enhancement (LGE) compared to normal controls (n = 77). Dyssynchrony indices were calculated based on timing of CMR derived circumferential strain (e<sub>cc</sub>). The calculated indices included cross-correlation delay (XCD), uniformity of strain (US), regional vector of variance (RVV), time to maximum strain (TTMS) and standard deviation (SD) of TTMS. Abnormal XCD value was defined as > normal + 2SD. US, RVV, TTMS and SD were calculated for patients with abnormal XCD.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>There was overall low prevalence of circumferential dyssynchrony in the entire DMD population; it increased to 17.1% for patients with abnormal EF and to 31.2% in the most advanced stage (abnormal EF with fibrosis). All but one DMD patient with mechanical dyssynchrony exhibited normal QRS duration suggesting absence of electrical dyssynchrony. The calculated US and RVV values (0.91 ± 0.09, 1.34 ± 0.48) indicate disperse rather than clustered dyssynchrony.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Mechanical dyssynchrony is frequent in boys with end stage DMD-associated cardiac dysfunction. It is associated with normal QRS complex as well as extensive lateral fibrosis. Based on these findings, it is unlikely that this patient population will benefit from CRT.</p

    Coronary-artery bypass surgery in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy

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    BACKGROUND The survival benefit of a strategy of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) added to guideline-directed medical therapy, as compared with medical therapy alone, in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction remains unclear. METHODS From July 2002 to May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to undergo CABG plus medical therapy (CABG group, 610 patients) or medical therapy alone (medical-therapy group, 602 patients). The primary outcome was death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included death from cardiovascular causes and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. The median duration of follow-up, including the current extended-follow-up study, was 9.8 years. RESULTS A primary outcome event occurred in 359 patients (58.9%) in the CABG group and in 398 patients (66.1%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio with CABG vs. medical therapy, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.97; P=0.02 by log-rank test). A total of 247 patients (40.5%) in the CABG group and 297 patients (49.3%) in the medical-therapy group died from cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.006 by log-rank test). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 467 patients (76.6%) in the CABG group and in 524 patients (87.0%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.82; P&lt;0.001 by log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, the rates of death from any cause, death from cardiovascular causes, and death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes were significantly lower over 10 years among patients who underwent CABG in addition to receiving medical therapy than among those who received medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; STICH [and STICHES] ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595.

    Impact of Regional Systems of Care on Disparities in Care Among Female and Black Patients Presenting With ST‐Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction

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    BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association Mission: Lifeline STEMI (ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) Systems Accelerator program, conducted in 16 regions across the United States to improve key care processes, resulted in more patients being treated within national guideline goals (time from first medical contact to device: <90 minutes for direct presenters to hospitals capable of performing percutaneous coronary intervention; <120 minutes for transfers). We examined whether the effort reduced reperfusion disparities in the proportions of female versus male and black versus white patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 23 809 patients (29.3% female, 82.3% white, and 10.7% black) presented with acute STEMI between July 2012 and March 2014. Change in the proportion of patients treated within guideline goals was compared between sex and race subgroups for patients presenting directly to hospitals capable of performing percutaneous coronary intervention (n=18 267) and patients requiring transfer (n=5542). The intervention was associated with an increase in the proportion of men treated within guideline goals that presented directly (58.7-62.1%, P=0.01) or were transferred (43.3-50.7%, P<0.01). An increase was also seen among white patients who presented directly (57.7-59.9%, P=0.02) or were transferred (43.9-48.8%, P<0.01). There was no change in the proportion of female or black patients treated within guideline goals, including both those presenting directly and transferred. CONCLUSION: The STEMI Systems Accelerator project was associated with an increase in the proportion of patients meeting guideline reperfusion targets for male and white patients but not for female or black patients. Efforts to organize systems of STEMI care should implement additional processes targeting barriers to timely reperfusion among female and black patients

    Quality of life impact and recovery after ureteroscopy and stent insertion: Insights from daily surveys in STENTS

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    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to describe day-to-day evolution and variations in patient-reported stent-associated symptoms (SAS) in the STudy to Enhance uNderstanding of sTent-associated Symptoms (STENTS), a prospective multicenter observational cohort study, using multiple instruments with conceptual overlap in various domains. METHODS: In a nested cohort of the STENTS study, the initial 40 participants having unilateral ureteroscopy (URS) and stent placement underwent daily assessment of self-reported measures using the Brief Pain Inventory short form, Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System measures for pain severity and pain interference, the Urinary Score of the Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire, and Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network Symptom Index. Pain intensity, pain interference, urinary symptoms, and bother were obtained preoperatively, daily until stent removal, and at postoperative day (POD) 30. RESULTS: The median age was 44 years (IQR 29,58), and 53% were female. The size of the dominant stone was 7.5 mm (IQR 5,11), and 50% were located in the kidney. There was consistency among instruments assessing similar concepts. Pain intensity and urinary symptoms increased from baseline to POD 1 with apparent peaks in the first 2 days, remained elevated with stent in situ, and varied widely among individuals. Interference due to pain, and bother due to urinary symptoms, likewise demonstrated high individual variability. CONCLUSIONS: This first study investigating daily SAS allows for a more in-depth look at the lived experience after URS and the impact on quality of life. Different instruments measuring pain intensity, pain interference, and urinary symptoms produced consistent assessments of patients\u27 experiences. The overall daily stability of pain and urinary symptoms after URS was also marked by high patient-level variation, suggesting an opportunity to identify characteristics associated with severe SAS after URS

    Association of Rapid Care Process Implementation on Reperfusion Times Across Multiple ST-Segment–Elevation Myocardial Infarction Networks

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    BACKGROUND: The Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator program, implemented in 16 US metropolitan regions, resulted in more patients receiving timely reperfusion. We assessed whether implementing key care processes was associated with system performance improvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hospitals (n=167 with 23 498 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients) were surveyed before (March 2012) and after (July 2014) program intervention. Data were merged with patient-level clinical data over the same period. For reperfusion, hospitals were grouped by whether a specific process of care was implemented, preexisting, or never implemented. Uptake of 4 key care processes increased after intervention: prehospital catheterization laboratory activation (62%-91%; P<0.001), single call transfer protocol from an outside facility (45%-70%; P<0.001), and emergency department bypass for emergency medical services direct presenters (48%-59%; P=0.002) and transfers (56%-79%; P=0.001). There were significant differences in median first medical contact-to-device times among groups implementing prehospital activation (88 minutes implementers versus 89 minutes preexisting versus 98 minutes nonimplementers; P<0.001 for comparisons). Similarly, patients treated at hospitals implementing single call transfer protocols had shorter median first medical contact-to-device times (112 versus 128 versus 152 minutes; P<0.001). Emergency department bypass was also associated with shorter median first medical contact-to-device times for emergency medical services direct presenters (84 versus 88 versus 94 minutes; P<0.001) and transfers (123 versus 127 versus 167 minutes; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The Accelerator program increased uptake of key care processes, which were associated with improved system performance. These findings support efforts to implement regional ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction networks focused on prehospital catheterization laboratory activation, single call transfer protocols, and emergency department bypass
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